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    題名: 「上山下鄉」報告文學之研究
    其他題名: Study of the reportages on "Down to the Countryside Movement"
    作者: 詹孟蓉;Chan, Meng-Jung
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    呂正惠;Zheng-Hui ,Lu
    關鍵詞: 上山下鄉;報告文學;知識青年;文化大革命;歷史評價;Down to the countryside movement;reportages;Educated youth;Cultural Revolution;historical appraisal
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2016-01-22 14:59:56 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文研究的重點,是針對以上山下鄉為主題的報告文學研究。分析各作品如何呈現上山下鄉政策的各個面向。本論文內容結構上,共分為五章十五小節,約計二十三萬字,茲簡述內容如下:
    第一章,導論。先對有關名詞的界定,其次是敘述研究動機和目的,最後是研究架構和範圍。
    第二章的部分將著重上山下鄉報告文學的敘述架構,此章節乃順著知識青年上山下鄉歷時性發展為脈絡,第一節簡述上山下鄉政策形成與歷史背景;第二節「知青接受上山下鄉政策的初期景象」,是從號召青年下鄉的高峰期:1955年和1968年這兩個時間點討論;第三節寫「知青上山下鄉的艱苦與收穫」,接受下鄉安置後知青的新生活,作品中呈現出知青們建設工作的各面向,有豐碩的成果,也有辛苦和失敗的一面;第四節「爭取返城與返城之後」,主要針對1978年開始,各地傳出知青抗爭、爭取返城的聲音,在爭取返城的運動中,以雲南生產建設兵團和農場的知青們,抗爭的手段最為激烈,筆者將在論文中,針對各作品對此歷史事件解讀的角度加以探討。
    第三章是討論「上山下鄉報告文學中的文學性」,此處著重於評價報告文學中展現的文學技巧,特別是描述「人物形象」上,筆者將評價各作品中如何表述歷史事件,並針對作者特有的文學藝術模式,或運用對人物刻劃的創作技巧,以此做為評判報導文學中的文學性,進而觀察作者在作品中對人物、故事背景描寫或氣氛渲染力。第一節論政策推動下典型「英雄」與「鐵姑娘」的人物形象,分別從各作品中列舉的典型人物為討論對象;第二節則著重討論「幹部的形象」,幹部的職責,多半是宣傳政策與執行政策者,但在許多作者筆下,將幹部視為是上山下鄉政策的「加害者」,透過作品將其具體形象一一呈現;第三節「下鄉知青的守護者」,特別討論作品中守護知青下鄉生活的幹部形象。
    第四章將集中探討作品對「上山下鄉運動的評價」。第一節針對「如何界定上山下鄉運動的性質」來討論,筆者以選定的作品中敘述「文革」前與「文革」後不同時期,所持的「經濟面向」、「政治面向」等不同目地分別討論;第二節討論「上山下鄉運動所付出的代價」,一是知青在下鄉期間付出寶貴的性命,另一「代價」是中國政府為政策付出了高額的金錢;第三節著重探討「知青集體記憶」與文本的關係,探討這場運動最後遺留下來的後續對知青、農民與中國的影響。
    第五章將總結本論文,並分別對各作品表述上山下鄉政策的綜合討論。
    The aim of this thesis is to focus on the study of the reportages on “Down to the Countryside Movement”. Different perspectives concerning the policy of the Movement which were represented through a variety of reportages will be analyzed accordingly.
    The structure of the thesis is divided into five chapters containing fifteen sections with approximately two hundred and thirty thousand words. Each chapter is briefly stated as follows.
    Chapter one is the introduction. I will define terminology, clarify the motivation for raising arguments and set up the frame of analysis and research. Chapter two concentrates on the narrative structure which was applied to the literature of the reportages on “Down to the Countryside Movement”. This chapter is chronologically organized according to the timing which was followed by the educated youth against the historical background of the Movement. In the sections that follow, I will survey the history and evolution of the identified Movement; concern mainly on the peaks of the Movement in 1955 and 1968 under the subtitle of the “preliminary acceptance of the policy on ‘Down to the Countryside Movement’ by the educated youth”; discover the new life of the educated youth and their reportages regarding different consequences – success and/or frustration – of their establishment work under the subtitle of the ‘sweet and bitterness of the educated youth’; and finally under the subtitle of the ‘claim to return to the city and afterwards’ explore the revolt of 1978 when the educated youth, especially those on the farms and in the martial groups of manufacture and development in Yun-nan province, drastically demanded to return back to the city. My approach to the identified historical event of 1978 facilitates an understanding and investigation of different reportages whose literary concentration is on the problem of returning back to the city.
    Chapter three discusses the literary characteristics of the educated youth’s reportages with an emphasis on the evaluation of the literary techniques, especially the description of the characters, applied to the reportages. I will investigate the specific and artistic way in which the historical event was described and the figures were characterized. In addition to the literariness of the reportage, the author’s creativity that is applied to depict the figures, stories and surroundings is central to my argument. In the sections that follow, I will discuss ‘heroic figures’ and ‘iron lady’ who are typical of the reportages; question the image of the cadre members who were supposed to be the executives of the policy, yet became the ‘inflicters’ through different reportages; and eventually acknowledge the cadre members who provided shelters for the educated youth.
    Chapter four is the pivot of the thesis filled with the “evaluation of the ‘Down to the Countryside Movement’.” In the sections that follow, I will look at the problem from economic and political perspectives and define it from the point of view before and after the Cultural Revolution in order to properly locate the Movement. Furthermore, I will examine the ‘price’, either the life or the money, the educated youth and the Chinese government paid for the lesson on the Movement. In the end, the collective memory of the educated youth for the Movement and its relationship to the textual materials will be analyzed as a threshold of further exploring the influence of the Movement on the next generation the educated youth, the peasants and China itself.
    Chapter five is the conclusion in which a general discussion of the policy on ‘Down to the Countryside Movement’ in a variety of reportages will be mentioned.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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