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    Title: 《呂氏春秋》中的諸子百家學說
    Other Titles: The hundred schools of thought in the annals of Lü Buwei
    Authors: 薛榕婷;Xue, Rong-Ting
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    周彥文;Cho, Yan-wen
    Keywords: 呂氏春秋;先秦諸子學術;治國方略;九流十家;學術轉變;文獻體例論;十二紀;八覽;六論;Hundred Schools of Thought in the pre-Qin period;Nine Schools of Thought and Xiaoshuojia (School of Minor-talks);Theory of Document Formats;twelve Almanacs / Ji;eight Examinations / Lan;six Discourses / Lun
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:59:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 戰國末年,秦國丞相呂不韋主導了先秦時代最後一部中國哲學學術著作的編寫,以為備天地萬物古今之事,號曰《呂氏春秋》。呂不韋仿效戰國四公子招募客卿,至食客三千,乃使客人人著所聞,博采眾說,鎔鑄一爐,集結先秦百家諸子學說而成。《呂氏春秋》上觀太古,刪拾春秋,集六國時事,內容雜采紛呈,而以君王治國為立足點。兼併六國統一天下,朝著天下一統大趨勢前進,對秦國當時而言已是可預見的態勢;為了可預見的前所未有的大秦帝國而設想。有意地擷取百家學術為其所用,透過貫通天地人的大道統合起來,欲囊括宇宙六合內所有的智識,因為擁有天下,也要擁有掌握天下的能力。〈序意篇〉表露其法天地之道的思想體系,實踐使萬物和諧、人類和諧、社會和諧的目標。
    秦國歷史素來有任用客卿的傳統,呂不韋出身衛國也非秦人,其下三千門客亦來自六國士人。在秦當權相國所主持編寫的《呂氏春秋》,可謂具足歷史、經濟、社會等等條件而完成。具體的內容可說綜合諸子百家精華,總結歷史經驗,為即將到來統一政權的國家提供一個長治久安的治國方案。《呂氏春秋》內容包含〈十二紀〉、〈八覽〉、〈六論〉三部分,形式為前所未有的整齊劃一,顯示確為先有寫作計畫而執行之。在紛雜的資料選取安排,經過統整籌畫之後完成,具有高度的詮釋意義。本文旨在以客觀的分析角度,以研究文獻外在形式結構之體例論作為主要的研究方法,探討《呂氏春秋》藉由其特殊的體例所呈現的編輯意義。十二紀所屬各篇,依循著春夏秋冬的意義安排,而且由生到死生命循環的寓意明顯。由個人養生修身推及於治國平天下的層次分明,並且有彼此呼應、補充以及收攝總結之內在聯繫。〈八覽〉所論皆治國要術,以覽首而言,安排有意,有守有為,知賢求賢用賢為主軸,與君道無為相表裡。〈六論〉各首篇立意明確,可視為對〈八覽〉的補充。
    傳統《呂氏春秋》研究多根據《漢書.藝文志》將其歸類為雜家,而稱其為雜家之祖,相互論辯其中到底雜了哪些家派。本文欲跳脫「九流十家」此一後起劃分加諸於先秦學術的框架,透過《呂氏春秋》直接探究諸子學術的內容。《呂氏春秋》學說思想圍繞著治國方略而論,先秦諸子學說關注的也正是如何長治久安之道。雖然當時未得到秦王政接受,但其學說理論隱然在漢代學術文化有所繼承、轉化與發展。承接戰國末期學術自由發展的文化風潮,轉向漢代統一大王朝,學術權威又逐漸回歸官方影響與控制之下;在兩個大時代之間的過渡,《呂氏春秋》位處承先啟後的重要樞紐。對《呂氏春秋》加以解讀與詮釋,能幫助吾人理解先秦諸子學說,補綴先秦諸子學說之樣貌,還原百家學說盛況。
    In the last years of Warring States period, Lü Buwei, the Chancellor of Qin state, led the writing and editing of the last pre-Qin academic publication on Chinese philosophy. As this publication was regarded as a comprehensive documentary covering every subject since the beginning of history, it was hence named “Lüshi Chunqiu / The Spring and Autumn Annals of Lü Buwei”。

    It had always been a tradition in Qin state to hire advisors from other states. For example, Lü Buwei himself was actually from Wei. Just like the Four Lords of the Warring States, Lü Buwei also cultivated and housed many talented house-guests from every state. The number of these guests ran up to as high as three thousands. They contributed what they had learned from every corner of the states to Lü’s Annals and therefore, its content became very rich and complex. Enormous projects like “Lüshi Chunqiu” could only be made possible when the conditions in economy, society and development were right.

    As Qin state was close to defeating other states and uniting the realm, the perspective of “Lüshi Chunqiu” was tailored for the future emperor to rule a long-lasting empire. The book presents thorough observation on history, politics and international affairs. In section Xuyi Pian, it suggests that the ruler learns from the principles of natural world for the harmony among people, society and the Nature.

    The theories laid out in “Lüshi Chunqiu” and by “Hundred Schools of Thought” mainly focused on statecraft. However, these political proposals were actually not that favored by Zheng, the King of Qin state. Nevertheless, these diverse ideas still subtly formed the foundation of the political theories in the following dynasty, Han, when free academic opinions became constrained and regulated by its central government. Therefore, “Lüshi Chunqiu” was a very influential publication at the point of this transition.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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