歷來學者認為《狄公案》一書後半部，具有強烈的政治暗諷書寫，而此矛頭指向當時實際掌權的統治者慈禧太后。本文將透過對於小說文本的剖析，探討其中所蘊含的清末歷史現況。除此之外，《狄公案》一書前半部的公案書寫，雖非作者所欲凸顯著重點，但卻隱含了作者暗諷慈禧太后、推崇狄公……的寫作意識。筆者透過清末歷史與《狄公案》的交叉印證，以及對於本書寫作意識的推敲，證明本書雖以公案為骨幹，但實際為暗諷慈禧及晚清政治的書寫。 本文一共分成六個章節，首章為緒論：說明筆者認為《狄公案》具有強烈的政治指涉性，並希望藉由歷史與文學整合的探討，印證歷來學者的說法與自身的假設。其次《狄公案》一書名稱紊亂，筆者亦將於首章作一梳理，並概要介紹本書內容以及針對本書的研究方法。 第二章：首先將「公案」一名的定義作一論述，之後就《狄公案》一書的題材、內容來剖析，最後透過《狄公案》與公案小說的比較後，仍將本書定位仍為公案小說。第三章：則透過對於成書背景的探討，說明本書所隱含的內容與晚清末年的政治形態有所關連。由於本書作者成謎，筆者藉由歷史的探討，對作者為何人？提供了一個更為清楚的方向。第四章：則針對本書的寫作技巧作一剖析，說明本書內容實融合唐、明、清三朝之制度，於今雖造成閱讀上的混亂，但作者如此寫作的原因，實為藉通俗詞彙以拉近與讀者間的距離，此種刻意寫作方式所造成的結果。第五章：則針對「狄仁傑」此一角色作一人物形象上的分析，探討作者將其由「能吏」轉變為「清官」的緣由。第六章：針對全文作一統整性的結論，並反思本文力有未逮之處。 Scholar''s always have an opinion with the " Di Gong An ". Latter part of this book has political criticism very strong. And it is mean the facto ruler Empress Dowager Cixi at that time. This thesis will resolve the novel that investigate the history of the late Ching Dynasty. In addition to this, " Di Gong An " implied that Judge Di is better than Empress Dowager Cixi. The write is research on the method of mutual verification between the novel "Di Gong An" and history. And the write infer the idea of author to prove this cases novel that actually a book about satirize Empress Dowager Cixi and the late Ching Dynasty political. This thesis divides into six chapters. The first chapter explained the ''Di Gong An'' has the referentiality of politics, and hoped is research on the method of mutual verification between the novel "Di Gong An" and history, to prove the scholar''s opinion and my statement by this paptr. And then, "Di Gong An" have a lot of titles. The writer will arrange this at first chapter. I will introduce this book and research methods with "Di Gong An". It defines the name of detective novel,and then analyzed the subject matter and contents at chapter two. The "Di Gong An" compared advantageously with the case novel,that still call for the case novel. Chapter three：the writer probe the "Di Gong An",that writing period. The contents of this book is linked political at Ching dynasty. We don''t know that who is the author about "Di Gong An". The writer investigate who is the author with history. And provide a clear direction for who is the author. Chapter four：the paper is directed to write technique to this book. It create confusion in reading because the system mix Tang、Minga and Ching. But the reason is that author want to closer to reader. Chapter five：writing will character analysis with Judge Di. The writer probing Why the author transform Judge Di competent officer to honest officer. Chapter six is the conclusion. Writer will organize conclusion and self-examination.