|其他題名: ||Comparative study of Confucius’ and Motzu’s thoughts of governance|
|作者: ||孟慶延;Meng, Ching-Yen|
|上傳時間: ||2016-01-22 14:59:30 (UTC+8)|
Before the Qin dynasty, a myriad of philosophical schools and philosophers held different concepts, hoping to change the state of chaos since the Eastern Zhou dynasty. This thesis is a comparative study of Confucius’ and Motzu’s concepts of governance. Within the thesis, a thorough analysis about the origins, the evolvements, and the rivalry of the two philosophical schools is conducted.
As is evident in "The Analects" and related Confucian literature classics, “ren” (humaneness) is the central virtue of Confucianism. The core value of the virtue lies in people. Confucius defined “ren” in the following ways: "Wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.” “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” In addition to “ren”, “yi” (righteousness) is a complete martial arts training based on personal accomplishment as the moral consciousness. Then through the “li” (proper rite) of reforming the system, Confucius anticipated to restore social order accordingly.
Motzu’s concept of governance is outlined in the “Ten Theses” in his book “Mo”. In terms of social and ethical issues, “jian ai” (universal love) and “fei kong” (opposition to offensive war) are the moral guides, with an emphasis that “jian ai” (universal love) eliminates the sources of chaos in the world. In politics, Motzu advocated the ideas of “shangxian” (respect meritocracy) and “shangtong” (social mobility and order) to be the uniform standards for the welfare of the people and for people to abide by. In economic issues, Motzu advocated “jie yong” (frugality), “jie sang” (frugal funeral), “fei yue” (opposition to music) as the foundation for constructing a wealthy and powerful nation. On a religious foundation, “tian zhi" (celestrial bureaucracy), “ming gui” (existence of spirits), “fei ming” (opposition to fatalism) are the standards for good and evil. Motzu’s “Ten Theses” are indeed his main guidelines of governance.
During early Warring States Period, Confucianism and Moism dominated the time. Although these two philosophical school are different, there are similarities between the two. Both followed the ancient knowledge and the example of the kings, forming distinct schools of learning and doctrines. In order to unravel the problems at the time, both taught numerous disciples to help spread the master’s philosophies and travel great distances to influence people from all walks of life and with all streams of thoughts.