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    題名: 孔墨治道思想比較研究
    其他題名: Comparative study of Confucius’ and Motzu’s thoughts of governance
    作者: 孟慶延;Meng, Ching-Yen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國文學系碩士班
    殷善培;Yin, Shan-Pei
    關鍵詞: 孔子;墨子;治道;Confucius;Motzu,;governance
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2016-01-22 14:59:30 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 先秦之世,諸子百家各授其說,莫不希望改變東周以來天下亂象。本文以孔、墨二家思想對於治理天下的方法進行比較研究。故對二家之思想淵源及相互責難進行說明,並對孔、墨治道如何開展做進一步研究。
    孔子治道思想,主要見於《論語》及相關儒家典籍文獻。「仁」是孔子的中心思想,以人為根本,即「己欲立而立人,己欲達而達人」、「己所不欲勿施於人」。「義」是修養功夫的完成,以個人修養做為道德的主體意識。再經由「禮」的制度重整,冀望恢復周初一切依「禮」而行的社會秩序。
    墨子治道思想,依《墨子》書中其「十論」做為治理天下的良方。在社會倫理層面以「兼愛」、「非攻」為準則,強調「兼愛」可以消除天下一切亂源。政治主張以「尚賢」、「尚同」為人民謀福利及共同遵守之統一標準。經濟主張以「節用」、「節葬」、「非樂」為富國強民的根底。宗教思想則以「天志」、「明鬼」、「非命」做為賞善惡的標準。墨子「十論」實為其治理天下之主要方策。
    戰國初期,儒、墨二家思想興盛。然二者實有相似之處,效法先王之道且自闢宗風,並稱顯學。為拯救時弊闢治道以施抱負,繼而廣授門徒,期望以思想傳於後學。遊走諸國,冀望施展治道於天下,凡此皆孔、墨之所同。孔、墨治道之思想學說在形式上皆可謂「布衣卿相」,可見二家亦有所契合之處。
    Abstract

    Before the Qin dynasty, a myriad of philosophical schools and philosophers held different concepts, hoping to change the state of chaos since the Eastern Zhou dynasty. This thesis is a comparative study of Confucius’ and Motzu’s concepts of governance. Within the thesis, a thorough analysis about the origins, the evolvements, and the rivalry of the two philosophical schools is conducted.
    As is evident in "The Analects" and related Confucian literature classics, “ren” (humaneness) is the central virtue of Confucianism. The core value of the virtue lies in people. Confucius defined “ren” in the following ways: "Wishing to be established himself, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be enlarged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others.” “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” In addition to “ren”, “yi” (righteousness) is a complete martial arts training based on personal accomplishment as the moral consciousness. Then through the “li” (proper rite) of reforming the system, Confucius anticipated to restore social order accordingly.
    Motzu’s concept of governance is outlined in the “Ten Theses” in his book “Mo”. In terms of social and ethical issues, “jian ai” (universal love) and “fei kong” (opposition to offensive war) are the moral guides, with an emphasis that “jian ai” (universal love) eliminates the sources of chaos in the world. In politics, Motzu advocated the ideas of “shangxian” (respect meritocracy) and “shangtong” (social mobility and order) to be the uniform standards for the welfare of the people and for people to abide by. In economic issues, Motzu advocated “jie yong” (frugality), “jie sang” (frugal funeral), “fei yue” (opposition to music) as the foundation for constructing a wealthy and powerful nation. On a religious foundation, “tian zhi" (celestrial bureaucracy), “ming gui” (existence of spirits), “fei ming” (opposition to fatalism) are the standards for good and evil. Motzu’s “Ten Theses” are indeed his main guidelines of governance.
    During early Warring States Period, Confucianism and Moism dominated the time. Although these two philosophical school are different, there are similarities between the two. Both followed the ancient knowledge and the example of the kings, forming distinct schools of learning and doctrines. In order to unravel the problems at the time, both taught numerous disciples to help spread the master’s philosophies and travel great distances to influence people from all walks of life and with all streams of thoughts.
    顯示於類別:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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