|摘要: || 隨著低成本航空 (low-cost carriers, LCC)崛起與快速發展，航空市場競爭越趨激烈。低成本航空囿於短程航線策略無法運用網路經濟效果，難以進入長程市場，且近年來低成本航空刺激市場需求之能力已不多，部分航線市場已接近飽和，為提高競爭、增加營運規模，低成本航空開始採取新的營運策略模式，試圖朝向低成本航空聯盟(如JetBlue與Aer Lingus、Air Asia與Jetstar聯盟)。面對複雜的協調整合規劃決策環境，低成本航空聯盟模式、聯盟航線決策與航線班次規劃問題，便成為重要之研究課題。由於低成本航空聯盟尚屬發展階段，過去研究較缺乏低成本航空進行策略聯盟之營運規劃問題，故本研究著重低成本航空聯盟之聯盟航線決策與航線班次規劃，於學術面及實務面確具研究重要性及研究貢獻。|
Low-cost carriers (LCCs) are an increasingly important part of the global air transportation industry. Due to the short-haul strategy, LCCs are more difficult on long-haul market and hard to achieve economies of density. However, the ability of LCCs to stimulate demand is running out, and many markets seem to be at or near the saturation point. To differentiate themselves from other LCCs, some low-cost operators are adopting different business models that include entering alliance (JetBlue and Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Jetstar). One current trend is that while international alliances among major airlines continue, some low-cost airlines have formed and some are now preparing for low-cost airline alliances. Since LCC alliance is in the initial stage, few researches have been paid to the operational strategies for LCC alliance. Therefore, how to determine the airline flight frequencies is very important for LCC alliance.
This study develops an airline network modeling and interactive programming responsive to LCCs code-share alliances, to determine the operational strategies in airline network design, airline flight frequencies and airfare. Consider bargaining interactions by international code-share alliances agreements and competitive interactions by LCCs alliance with full service carriers (FSCs), this study designs a two-stage interactive algorithm. In the first phase, the bargaining interactions between two partner–LCCs in a LCC alliance negotiation was taken into consideration. In order to determine the LCC alliance networking and the optimization of the individual LCCs, this study formulates the network modeling of pre-alliance and the integrated alliance network, respectively. In the second phase, the competitive interactions between LCC alliance and the other competitor in airlines market was taken into consideration. Through competitve scenario analysis were determined. The optimal operational strategies corresponding to different competitor reactions.
A numerical example with an Asian LCC and an Australian LCC were provided to illustrate the results and the application of the proposed models. Moreover, a group of optimal solutions for airline flight frequecies and airfares was determined. An optimal LCCs alliance operational strategy was also determined. The results showed that the parallel code-share alliance makes both sides of LCC members increase profits, reduce operating costs and also increase market shares. On the other hand, the complementary code-share alliance makes them enter long-haul market and extend the network scope. Scenario analyses are also discussed. The results of this study explore the effect of LCC alliances on airfares, allied routes and route frequencies, and the allied network structure. In addition, it is envisaged that the results of this study may shed light on low-cost alliance strategies.