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    Title: 低成本航空策略聯盟之航線網路班次規劃
    Other Titles: Low-cost airline network flight frequency planning in response to low-cost airline alliances
    Authors: 謝欣緯;Hsieh, Hsin-Wei
    Contributors: 淡江大學運輸管理學系碩士班
    溫裕弘
    Keywords: 低成本航空公司聯盟;航線網路規劃;共用班號聯盟;聯盟航線班次規劃;Low-Cost Airline Alliance;Airline Network Modeling;Code-share alliance;Code-shared route flight frequency planning
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:56:45 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   隨著低成本航空 (low-cost carriers, LCC)崛起與快速發展,航空市場競爭越趨激烈。低成本航空囿於短程航線策略無法運用網路經濟效果,難以進入長程市場,且近年來低成本航空刺激市場需求之能力已不多,部分航線市場已接近飽和,為提高競爭、增加營運規模,低成本航空開始採取新的營運策略模式,試圖朝向低成本航空聯盟(如JetBlue與Aer Lingus、Air Asia與Jetstar聯盟)。面對複雜的協調整合規劃決策環境,低成本航空聯盟模式、聯盟航線決策與航線班次規劃問題,便成為重要之研究課題。由於低成本航空聯盟尚屬發展階段,過去研究較缺乏低成本航空進行策略聯盟之營運規劃問題,故本研究著重低成本航空聯盟之聯盟航線決策與航線班次規劃,於學術面及實務面確具研究重要性及研究貢獻。
      本研究主要探討低成本航空進行共用班號聯盟(code-share alliance)之聯盟航線決策、航線班次與航線基本費率之航線網路規劃問題。考慮聯盟協商互動及聯盟與聯盟外競爭者之競爭互動,本研究設計兩階段互動式求解演算法,第一階段為聯盟協商互動,為同時追求聯盟整體網路與個別低成本航空網路最佳化,分別建構聯盟前低成本航空公司個別航線網路模式與聯盟後整合網路之航線網路規劃模式,應用參考點法所建立之互動式求解機制,分析聯盟兩造之協商互動;透過互動式規劃求解,探討低成本航空最適聯盟規劃。第二階段為低成本航空聯盟與聯盟外全服務航空間之競爭互動,透過競爭情境分析,求解在不同航線市場競爭下低成本航空聯盟所對應之最適聯盟規劃。
      本研究以亞洲低成本航空公司為對象進行數值範例分析,驗證模式可行性。研究結果顯示,在最適聯盟決策與協商互動下,平行式共用班號使聯盟兩造之總利潤皆增加、總營運成本皆有效降低、航線市場佔有率亦提升,而互補式共用班號則使低成本航空進入長程航線市場且增加市場營運範圍並提升營收。進一步透過情境分析提供低成本航空聯盟決策彈性,情境中假設聯盟外競爭者採取價格競爭,結果顯示,競爭者採取降低航線基本費率策略時,低成本航空聯盟之低價優勢將逐漸減少,當競爭者採取較大之價格競爭時,惟調整低成本航空之定價策略,得維持原市場規模且使聯盟後市佔率提升。本研究成果不僅在學術上做為低成本航空聯盟網路規劃問題之建模基礎,在實務上亦可提供低成本航空業者聯盟策略與決策彈性參考。
      Low-cost carriers (LCCs) are an increasingly important part of the global air transportation industry. Due to the short-haul strategy, LCCs are more difficult on long-haul market and hard to achieve economies of density. However, the ability of LCCs to stimulate demand is running out, and many markets seem to be at or near the saturation point. To differentiate themselves from other LCCs, some low-cost operators are adopting different business models that include entering alliance (JetBlue and Aer Lingus, Air Asia and Jetstar). One current trend is that while international alliances among major airlines continue, some low-cost airlines have formed and some are now preparing for low-cost airline alliances. Since LCC alliance is in the initial stage, few researches have been paid to the operational strategies for LCC alliance. Therefore, how to determine the airline flight frequencies is very important for LCC alliance.
      This study develops an airline network modeling and interactive programming responsive to LCCs code-share alliances, to determine the operational strategies in airline network design, airline flight frequencies and airfare. Consider bargaining interactions by international code-share alliances agreements and competitive interactions by LCCs alliance with full service carriers (FSCs), this study designs a two-stage interactive algorithm. In the first phase, the bargaining interactions between two partner–LCCs in a LCC alliance negotiation was taken into consideration. In order to determine the LCC alliance networking and the optimization of the individual LCCs, this study formulates the network modeling of pre-alliance and the integrated alliance network, respectively. In the second phase, the competitive interactions between LCC alliance and the other competitor in airlines market was taken into consideration. Through competitve scenario analysis were determined. The optimal operational strategies corresponding to different competitor reactions.
      A numerical example with an Asian LCC and an Australian LCC were provided to illustrate the results and the application of the proposed models. Moreover, a group of optimal solutions for airline flight frequecies and airfares was determined. An optimal LCCs alliance operational strategy was also determined. The results showed that the parallel code-share alliance makes both sides of LCC members increase profits, reduce operating costs and also increase market shares. On the other hand, the complementary code-share alliance makes them enter long-haul market and extend the network scope. Scenario analyses are also discussed. The results of this study explore the effect of LCC alliances on airfares, allied routes and route frequencies, and the allied network structure. In addition, it is envisaged that the results of this study may shed light on low-cost alliance strategies.
    Appears in Collections:[運輸管理學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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