本研究探討國中生在面對學業上有挫敗時，自我的歸因與覺知到重要他人歸因對於其自我概念之影響，其中將自我的歸因與覺知他人歸因使用歸因組型和歸因配對方式詳細討論之。本研究使用問卷調查法，研究對象為台北市與新北市國中學生430人。所使用之研究工具為「自我概念量表、學業挫敗自我歸因量表、學業挫敗他人歸因量表」，以獨立樣本t檢定、卡方考驗、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森積差相關等統計方法進行數據的分析。 本研究之主要發現如下： 一、面對學業挫敗時，歸因自我歸因於努力者最多，且女生顯著多於男生 二、面對學業挫敗，國中七年級和九年級的學生在自我歸因於能力、感覺重要他人歸因於努力上有顯著差異 三、自我努力歸因與自我概念有正相關；自我能力、工作難度、運氣歸因和覺知他人能力歸因與自我概念有負相關 四、國中生學業挫敗時，自我與覺知他人使用運氣歸因，與能力我有負相關；除歸因於努力，其他的歸因方式皆與學業我呈現顯著負相關；自我使用努力歸因，他人使用工作難度歸因，與國中生的社會我有正相關 五、國中生學業挫敗時，感覺到他人將此挫敗歸因於工作難度，與學業我有中度正相關，但與情緒我有低度負向的相關 六、國中生自我的歸因方式與覺知他人歸因方式相同者皆有高度的正向相關 七、「自我內在他人外在」的歸因方式，其自我概念明顯高於「自我外在他人內在」的國中生 八、「自我可控(努力)他人可控(努力)」的歸因方式，其自我概念明顯高於「自我不可控(非努力)他人不可控(非努力)」的國中生 This study investigated the effect of self-attribution and perceived attribution of important others on the self-concept of junior high school students when faced with academic frustration. Self-attribution and perceived other-attribution were discussed and compared in terms of attribution styles. The questionnaire survey method was adopted. The participants were 430 junior high school students living in Taipei City or New Taipei City. The questionnaire consisted of “Self-concept Scale, Self-attribution of Academic Frustration Scale, and Other-attribution of Academic Frustration Scale”. Data were analyzed using methods including t-test, Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation. The main findings included: 1. When faced with academic frustration, among those who would attribute the frustration to effort, girl students significantly outnumbered boy students. 2. When faced with academic frustration, seventh-grade students and ninth-grade students showed significant differences in self-attribution to effort and perceived other-attribution to effort. 3. Self-attribution to effort was positively related to self-concept; self-attribution to ability, task difficulty, and luck and perceived other-attribution to ability were negatively related to self-concept. 4. Among the students, self-attribution and perceived other-attribution of academic frustration to luck was negatively related to ability self; except attribution to effort, all the attribution styles were negatively related to academic self to the level of significance; self-attribution to effort and other-attribution to task difficulty were positively related to social self. 5. Perceived other-attribution to task difficulty was positively related to academic self at a moderate level but negatively related to emotional self at a low level. 6. The students’ self-attribution style was highly and positively related to perceived attribution style of others. 7. Students who “attributed internally and perceived others as attributing externally” showed significantly higher self-concept than those who “attributed externally and perceived others as attributing internally”. 8. Students who perceived frustration as “controllable by self (effort-related) and controllable by others (effort-related)” showed significantly higher self-concept than those who perceived frustration as “uncontrollable by self (not effort-related) and uncontrollable by others (not effort-related)”.