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    Title: 杜斯妥耶夫斯基《宗教大法官》中的虛無主義
    Other Titles: A study on the nihilism in Fyodor Dostoevsky’s "The Grand Inquisitor"
    Authors: 范惠蓮;Fan, Hui-Lien
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    馬良文;Maliavin, Vladimir
    Keywords: 杜斯妥耶夫斯基;卡拉馬佐夫兄弟;宗教大法官;虛無主義;Dostoevsky;Nihilism;The GrandInquisitor;The Karamazov Brothers
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:43:39 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 俄羅斯是東正教國家,宗教信仰深入社會各個層面,在彼得大帝的西化運動之前,東正教文化主宰了國家,後因蒙古統治留下的獨裁和中央極權制度,導致俄羅斯與西方的文化有根本性的差異。俄羅斯的虛無主義有自身的特色,它是在保守的東正教會和沙皇專制統治的背景下出現,是本土文化與西方科學文明碰撞後誕生的產物。所以在政治活動上特別強調否定一切價值和打破傳統權威,導致了日後政治上的恐怖主義活動。十九世紀下半葉的俄羅斯社會運動家和革命分子來自於知識分子階層,當時的知識份子都受到虛無主義的影響,所以欲了解俄羅斯革命的成因,必先研究虛無主義在俄羅斯社會的發展。
    《卡拉馬佐夫兄弟》是杜斯妥耶夫斯基生前最後一部長篇小說,小說內容涉及了宗教哲學、人性、與政治問題,小說中的卡拉馬佐夫家族就是俄羅斯社會的縮影。《宗教大法官》一章為整部小說之菁華,杜氏對於基督教信仰和教會的性質有獨特的見解,他在小說中提出了俄羅斯社會最根本的問題:選擇幸福或是自由。俄羅斯的傳統思維認為幸福與自由不可兼得,人類為了自由應該放棄幸福。杜斯妥耶夫斯基是虔誠的東正教信徒,他認為唯有東正教繼承了基督精神,批評西方教會為了塵世的享受而背棄了信仰,社會主義和虛無主義貶低人的價值,無神論和共產主義將導致極權政府的出現,並呼籲人們回歸對上帝的信仰。
    白銀時代的俄羅斯哲學家對杜斯妥耶夫斯基的思想有深入的研究。他們企圖從杜氏的作品裡為俄羅斯的發現出路,討論信仰和無神論和社會主義的關係。然而隨著革命的爆發和蘇維埃政權的建立,教會淪為新政權壓迫的對象,宗教思想家紛紛流亡國外,無暇顧及教會與國家之間的問題。
    Russia’s official religion is Orthodox Christianity, religious faith penetrates all aspects of social life; The authocratic rule established by the Mongols generated some profound differences between Russian and the Western culture.
    Russia''s Nihilism came into existence with this background of conservative Orthodox church and the Tsar autocracy, it was the outcome of traditional culture’s clash with the western secular rationalism. On social plane it made particular emphasis on the negation of all values and breaking up with traditional authorities, leading to the political terrorist activities. In the second half of the 19th century, the influential movement of revolutionaries originated from the ranks of Russian intelligentsia which was by and large under the influence of nihilism/ So in order to understand know the roots of Russian Revolution, one must first study the development of Nihilism in Russian society.
    “The Brothers Karamazov” is Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s last full-length novel. The novel deals with the philosophy of religion, human nature and political issues; the Karamazov family in the novel is the epitome of Russian society .Traditionally, Russian thinking considered that people cannot have happiness and freedom at the same time; a human being should give up happiness to acquire his freedom.
    Fyodor Dostoyevsky was a devout Orthodox believer. He was highly critic of Western church which, he believed, abandoned its faith for the worldly enjoyment while socialism and nihilism belittle the value of human life. He predicted that atheistic communism would lead to the emergence of the totalitarian government.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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