南京市做為中國歷史上第一個由政府立法推動社會醫療保險的城市，又是僅次於上海的華東地區第二大城市，以此城市的社會醫療保險制度做觀察對象予以探討，相信能更容易切入核心問題。十八大政治報告中提到：「加強社會建設，是社會和諧穩定的重要保證」。一個和諧穩定的國家，能夠強化國家經濟與社會的發展，而社會層面的問題是最能反映出國家的實際情況，因此，社會保險制度與社會醫療保險制度將是顯示國家政策是否能給予國民安定發展的生活水準。本文將以下列三個方向進行研究： 一、中國大陸醫療保險制度之改革前與改革後。 二、中國大陸醫療保險制度的內容。 三、南京市的醫療保險制度概況。 As a second largest city in East China, Nanjing is the first city to carry out medical insurance policy by the government in Chinese history. So it is easier to enter the core issue through taking Nanjing as the object of observation and to discuss the medical insurance system. It has been proposed in the politic report of 18th Communist Party Congress that improving people’s well being was the important guarantee of social peace and stability. As a harmonious and stable country, it must be able to strengthen the development of its economy and society, and the issues at social level can reflect the real situation of a country most. Therefore, social and medical insurance system can indicate whether a country can provide its nationals a stable and developed living level. This thesis will conduct a research from the following aspects: 1. The medical insurance system in Mainland China before and after the reform. 2. The content of the medical insurance system in Mainland China. 3. General situation of the medical insurance system in Nanjing.