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    Title: 從電影<<歡迎來北方>>探討法國南北的刻板印象
    Other Titles: Study on stereotypes Northern France : Southern France from the film <>
    Authors: 郭欣芳;Kuo, Hsin-Fang
    Contributors: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    徐鵬飛
    Keywords: 歧視;偏見;刻板印象;社會認同;內團體外團體;種族歧視;簡化認知;discrimination;prejudice;stereotypes;social identity;in group and out group;racial discrimination;simplify cognitive;iscrimination;les prejuges;les stereotypes;identite sociale;dans le groupe et hors groupe;la discrimination raciale;de simplifier cognitive
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:39:18 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 刻板印象存在於我們的生活中且無所不在,我們現在聽到「刻板印象」這四個字,大多還是帶有負面的意思,這並非短時間造成的,而是長久流傳下來。其實一開始的刻板印象並沒有意義,出現於印刷業。後來社會學家李普曼(Walter Lippmann)在其著作《輿論》(Public Opinion)中提及一詞,認為世界上太多複雜的事物難以一一親身去了解,進而演變出「簡化認知」的方式,因此,簡化認知就塑造團體一種共有的形象而忽略個體間的差異性,長久之下就出現刻板印象。

      刻板印象理論於生活中也衍伸出其他層面的問題:性別刻板、種族刻板、地域刻板。根據Eagly的「社會角色理論」認為性別刻板之所以維續的原因在於男性在社會上往往佔有較高的地位,勞動的劃分引導男性女性行為方式符合其社會角色,然而人們將這些社會角色歸因於性別而非角色的需要。種族刻板衍則伸出種族歧視,這是由於長期的刻板印象會產生偏見,偏見帶來了歧視行為的表現。而地域刻板是一種認知結構,涉及知覺者關於某個地區人群的群體觀念。

      導演Dany Boon藉由喜劇電影《歡迎來北方》消除法國人對於北方的刻板印象,利用電影的對話及場景的對比來破解舊有的刻板印象。主角Philippe假裝殘疾人士想調往南邊工作被識破,被調往北方兩年。對於南方人而言,法國北方如同北極般的寒冷、當地居民說著聽不懂的「Ch’ti」方言,有著根深蒂固的刻板印象。從一開始的不適應與到最後要離開北方的不捨,主角Philippe修正了對北方的刻板印象。如同劇中角色Antoine說:「一個人來北方會哭兩次,來的時候以及離開的時候。」電影中除了南方人對於北方人的刻板印象,也有北方人對於南方人的刻板印象。筆者於研究中發現簡化認知及分類所產生的內團體、外團體現象是產生刻板印象的原因,要減少刻板印象,必須屏除成見,用客觀的心態認識事物,修正原先的錯誤認知,就會用更平等的心欣賞人事物,多點正面的認知及思維。
    Abstract:

    Stereotypes exist in our lives and omnipresent, we now hear the "stereotype", it goes with mostly negative meaning, it is not caused by short-term, but long-term handed down. In fact, the beginning of the stereotype does not make sense, appeared in the printing industry. Later the sociologist Lippmann (Walter Lippmann) mentioned the term in his book " Public Opinion ", Stereotype appears because there are too many complicated things in the world that is difficult to understand in person, and then evolved "simplified cognitive" in way, therefore, to simplify the perception of a common organization to shape the image and ignore differences between individuals, therefore stereotypes appear.

    Stereotype theory in life is also extended to other aspects of derivative question: gender stereotypes, racial stereotypes, regional stereotypes. According to Eagly "social role theory":gender stereotypes still continue until now , the reason because the men in the community tend to occupy a higher position, division of labor guide Male Female behavior consistent with its role in society, However, it is attributive to these social roles rather than requiring gender roles. In addition, stereotypes of race, which is due to the long-term will produce prejudices, prejudices brought performance discriminatory acts. And geographical stereotype is a rigid cognitive structure involving groups of perceivers ideas about an area population.

    Comedy movie directed by Dany Boon, "Bienvenue chez les Ch’tis" to eliminate northern France by contrast movie dialogue and scenes to break the old stereotypes. Philippe pretend protagonist wish to transfer south France bur he failed, and he was transferred to the North for two years. For Southerners, the north of France as cold as the Arctic, said local residents do not understand the "Ch''ti" dialect, has a deep-rooted stereotypes. At the beginning he doesn’t suit there, however, he realize that the north of France is a nice place and people are friendly when time to leave with sadness. Like the characters Antoine said: " A stranger who comes in the North cries twice when he arrives and when he leaves " In addition, this movie shows the stereotypes not only from southerners to northerners, but also northerners to southerners. I found that within the group to simplify the perception and classification arising in the study, is the cause of the phenomenon outside groups stereotype, to reduce stereotypes and prejudices, we should have the objective minds to look everything, correcting misperceptions original, also being open-mind and respect to appreciate the different cultures and people.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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