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    Title: Buddhist compassion and the protection of the environment
    Other Titles: 佛教慈悲與環境保護
    Authors: 楊思芸;Yang, Szu-yun
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    楊銘塗;Yang, Ming-tu
    Keywords: 慈悲;佛教宇宙觀;大我;器世界;環境;土地倫理;生態烏托邦;compassion;bhajana-loka;cosmology of Buddhism;Six Realms of Rebirth;Six paramitas;Self;Big Self;land ethics;food chain;ecotopia;Environment;bardo;Bodhisattva;sentient beings;animal right;vegetarianism
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:39:15 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本篇論文之目的在檢視佛教義理與環境保護生態議題之關聯性。本論文的「眾生」定義包括人及非人族類的平等觀,亦即,在強調非人族類的生命權之時,不排斥「人」的重要性。本論文各章節以大乘佛教之慈悲思想為軸,論述其在保護環境措施上之啟示與一些實質貢獻。

    第一章討論佛教之宇宙觀,解釋三界、六道、器世界等概念。此章節提出佛教宇宙觀之六種特色,論及生命起源、人的角色、輪迴與業報、共業、心念的力量以及佛教的大我觀。本章認為透過這種「大環境」的體認,人才能同時了知生態的物質及精神性,也才更能去除小我的人中心主義而有利人和非人族類的共生。

    第二章討論佛教如何使凡人修成菩薩,舉例檢視生態殺手與生態人。此章提出生態佛教徒的特色,包含持戒、簡樸生活、非暴力、心口意助人、修四攝法、面對無常、忍辱、以及慈悲修行等。這種修持加強第一章所強調的大我精神。有關生態殺手與生態人的分類是本章特色。

    第三章首先討論卡倫巴赫小說《生態烏托邦》中之生態烏托邦概念,批判小說中一些不利生態烏托邦永續的潛存因素,如狩獵、殺生,醫療之性行為等所可能引發的忌妒與憎恨。本章認為這些不良行為將導致一個理想社會的崩毀。本章進一步檢視更適合的生態環境範例,如赫胥黎小說《島嶼》中的帕拉國、《無量壽經》之淨土、及《慢行不丹》中的不丹等,並舉證它們有關簡樸、無為、精神潔淨及快樂指數優於經濟成長等等優點。

    第四章討論在動植物及器世界的保護。本章重點放在佛教不殺生戒、放生、素食主義等幾個要目。討論不殺生、不偷、以及《楞伽經》中對素食主義的概念。此章節也討論現代佛教徒如何把佛教愛心、物我同一觀、及禪定發揮極致並投入生態運動,並以實際例子作典範,來支持佛教大悲、大愛、及無畏的生態功能觀。

    第五章描述《華嚴經》中的完美環境,本章提出佛教面對生死的方式,討論人在有生之日如何透過簡樸生活、無我、去執著、修心來過快樂生活。本章最後則討論佛教如何教人面對死亡、平安接受死亡、和這種藝術對安定人間環境的功能。

    本篇論文透過以上不同的佛教主題,共同呈現了人如何展現普遍存在的慈悲心,來治癒和保護環境。
    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine Buddhist teaching in relation to the ecological issues of environmental protection, both narrowly and broadly defined. The Mahayana Buddhist concept of compassion is used as the force lying behind the five chapters. My rationale and arguments show that Buddhist compassion can motivate and bring about sound ecological practices that protect the environment.
    Chapter One discusses the cosmology of Buddhism, explaining trayo dhatavah (the Three World Levels), the Six Realms of Rebirth, and bhajana-loka (more specifically, the ideal country in the “container-world”). Chapter One also discusses the six characteristics of Buddhist cosmology: (1) the origins of living beings, (2) the role of human beings, (3) the Buddhist system of Samsara and the retribution of Karma, (4) the Buddhist doctrine of collective retribution, (5) the Buddhist belief in the power of the mind, and (6) the Buddhist view of the Big Self.
    Chapter Two discusses how Buddhism cultivates common people to be Bodhisattva-like people and examines two categories of people: the “ecokiller” and the “ecohuman.” This chapter proposes the characteristics of true eco-Buddhists, namely, avoiding of the three poisons (greed, hatred, and delusion); keeping the Five Precepts; leading a simple life; practicing and teaching nonviolence; benefitting people through kind thoughts, words, and deeds and through merit-transfer; practicing the Four All-embracing Virtues; working pro-actively and actively in the impermanent world; cultivating patience and endurance; and nurturing compassionate thoughts.
    Chapter Three critiques Callenbach’s idea of ecotopia as it appears in his novel Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston. Callenbach’s version of ecotopia has some defects. Examples given here, among others, are that his version indirectly encourages brutality by permitting the hunting, killing, and eating of game; and that his version encourages sexual license, thus feeding the jealousy and hatred that such license can provoke. A consequence is that destructive forces are unleashed in the society. My counter-proposal examines three examples of ecological environment that present better, more “Buddhistic” programs for an ecotopia and environment: (1) Aldous Huxley’s “Kingdom of Pala” in his novel Island, (2) Buddhism’s description of “pure land” in the Larger Sukhavati-vyuha Sutra, and (3) the policies of the real-life country of Bhutan as described in Wander Bhutan.
    Chapter Four discusses the protection of wildlife in an ideal but concrete country that belongs to Buddhist cosmology’s “container-world.” Such a world practices (1) the Buddhist precept of not killing, (2) the act of the life-release rite (“liberation of animals”), and (3) vegetarianism. Associated with “not-killing” is “not-stealing,” since—for example—animal infants are often stolen from their parents to be killed: such an act also violates the more general norm, “Do not take what is not given.” In the case of vegetarianism, in the Lankavatara Sutra, the Buddha supplies five reasons for strict adherence to vegetarianism, and they are explained here. Chapter Four also provides examples of various measures taken to protect animals and plants; and it supplies examples of such social engagement undertaken by contemporary Buddhists.
    Chapter Five first describes the perfect country as laid-out in the Flower Adornment Sutra. Then the chapter discusses several ways of “living well,” including: (1) the “simple life” as described by the Buddha (here the Buddhist dhutaga-niddesa is used as an inspiration); (2) dissolution of belief in the inherent “self”; (3) the severing of attachments; and (4) cultivation of the mind in accordance with the Heart Sutra (and via the Eightfold Path, the Ten Wholesome Deeds, the Three Ways of Stopping Outflows, etc.). Lastly, the chapter explains in detail the “art of caring for the dying,” and the “art of dying well.”
    This dissertation brings together various Buddhist themes that together show humanity how to exercise universal compassion, thus healing the environment in the narrow and even the broader sense.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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