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    Title: 日本の若年労働者、教育と労働市場におけるミスマッチの問題について
    Other Titles: 日本的年輕勞工、教育以及勞動市場錯配之問題
    Japan's young workers, education and mismatch in labor market
    Authors: 鄭紫賢;Cheng, Tzu-Hsien
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    小山直則;Koyama, Naonori
    Keywords: 年輕勞工;教育;錯配;雇用政策;配對函數;Young Workers;education;Mismatch;Employment Strategies;Matching Function;若年労働者;ミスマッチ;マッチング関数
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:35:22 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   日本的年輕勞工(15~34歲)在就業市場上的優勢是,平均一人所接觸的職缺較其他年齡層來得多,意即較容易取得工作機會。然而,年輕勞工為了尋找適合自己的工作,辭職或轉職也是較為普遍的。同時,日本的非正職員工裡,約有四分之一為年輕勞工。這些年輕勞工裡,有一部分並非是自願成為非正職員工的。日本的薪資水平成長並沒有出現異常,但是由於正職員工與非正職員工的薪資差距大,因此有必要重視非正職員工的問題。
      而這些非正職員工無法成為正職員工的原因,正是本稿的重點-勞動市場的錯配。產生錯配的原因有很多,有可能是勞資雙方資訊流通的不足;或者是勞資雙方的要求不同,因而沒有辦法達成理想的配對。錯配會造成失業,亦或讓配對的滿意度降低,進而造成辭職或轉職的發生。那麼該如何解決錯配的問題?首先必須要透過教育的實施來消弭錯配。但是近年來大學升學率的提高,理應能提升年輕勞工的品質,然而近年來的非自願性的非正職員工卻不斷增加。當教育沒有辦法如期地幫助年輕勞工時,政府要如何運用雇用政策來協助年輕勞工就更顯得額外重要了。
      本研究首先整理出日本年輕勞工在勞動市場的現狀。而對於解決錯配問題的方法,是透過配對函數的分析來討論政府的雇用政策。經由配對函數的剖析,我們可以得知由從「失業給付」、「解雇要件」、「加強情報之流通性」來解決錯配問題。本研究的解決方法以此三項為主軸,討論現今日本政府對年輕勞工雇用政策的方向性。
    Compared with other groups of labor force, Japanese young workers (15~34 years old) are advantageous in searching for occupations. In the same time, young workers are also easy to change or quit their jobs because they are still at a step to search for ideal occupations. On the other hand, there are almost 1/4 irregular employment are young workers. Parts of them are unwilling to become irregular employment. Japanese salaries are increasing normally, but the disparity between permanent employment and irregular employment is existed. That’s why the problem of unwilling irregular employment should not be ignorant.
    These irregular employments are not able to become permanent employment even though they want. This will be the core of this thesis-‘Mismatch in Labor market’. Mismatch happened in many perspectives. Some cases are due to asymmetric information or discorded in demanding of companies and labor force. Mismatch caused unemployment; further more, continuously changing jobs or resignation. Recently years, Gross Tertiary Education Enrollment Ratio is elevated. As a result, capability of young workers should be improved. But the fact is that unwilling irregular employments are rising. As for mentioned, if education can’t help young workers as we expected, the way how Japanese government use employment strategies to assist young workers would be extremely meaningful and important.
    At first, the thesis states young workers’ situation in labor force nowadays. Secondly, using matching function to discovery how mismatch can be solved. In examining matching function, we found Mismatch could be improved from ‘unemployment pension’, ‘conditions of layoff’ and ‘improving transmission efficiency of information’. In the end, the thesis discuss with whether the employment strategies followed these 3 factors and how to modify its direction in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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