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    Title: 拉丁美洲毒品除罪化問題之研究 : 以墨西哥為例
    Other Titles: Studies of decriminalization of drugs in Latin America : the case of Mexico
    Authors: 周厚瑜;Chou, Hou-Yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    宮國威
    Keywords: 墨西哥;毒品;除罪化;施用毒品行為;販毒集團;反毒戰爭;毒品政策;Mexico;Drug;Decriminalization;Consumption of Drugs;Drug Cartel;Drug War;Drug Policy
    Date: 2015
    Issue Date: 2016-01-22 14:20:37 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二十一世紀以來,以懲罰性禁止措施為中心的全球毒品戰爭已被證實失敗。許多研究顯示加強執法無法遏止全球非法毒品市場。於是國際間開始出現對毒品施用者採取寬容態度之作法,尤其是大麻施用者。許多國家一致認為,販毒集團及非法毒品走私過程中所造成的暴力犯罪,才是真正的社會問題亂源。單純持有及施用毒品行為對他人造成危害大多數甚低,有限度的除罪化有其合理性存在。

      各國制定毒品施用者處遇政策以及對於毒品施用行為除罪化政策之觀點,深受其社會文化因素、刑事政策理念與毒品問題背景所影響,美國因其位居美洲的領導地位,其毒品政策在一定程度上影響著拉丁美洲各國。在探討國際間毒品施用者處遇時,歐洲國家也具相當地討論性,主要是因其毒品相關法規發展較成熟,其中尤以向來以「寬宏」的毒品政策為名的荷蘭最具有代表性。以消減供給為取向的毒品政策已經在拉丁美洲國家實行50年有餘,這樣的毒品政策亦在最近10年來被證明是無效的。因此拉丁美洲國家近來也開始討論並實行不同於以往做法的毒品除罪化政策,盼望能解決困擾拉美已久的毒品問題。

      墨西哥為全球最直接受到反毒戰爭帶來的負面影響的國家,毒品問題嚴重影響墨西哥的社會、經濟與政治層面。墨西哥販毒集團的毒梟最早於美國對毒品需求量大增的1960年代發跡。墨西哥在販毒集團的操控下,毒品工業的每個環節都深入且持續侵蝕著墨西哥。自2006年墨西哥展開反毒戰爭後,不斷惡化的治安及毒品貪腐問題,使得墨西哥政府手足無措,墨西哥人民依舊生活在水深火熱之中。面對全球反毒戰爭的失敗,毒品施用除罪化的趨勢也影響到墨西哥。墨西哥於2009年將個人施用毒品行為除罪化,然而該法仍存有許多的爭議。2013年面對全球娛樂用大麻合法化的趨勢,墨西哥市也展開沸騰的大麻合法化討論,盼望為墨西哥打擊毒品成效不彰的情況找到出路。
    Since the 20th century, global war on drugs which focus on prohibit and punitive measures has been shown to be failed. Many studies have shown that enforcement can not stop the global illicit drug market. So the international community began to adopt a tolerant policy on the drug consumers, especially marijuana users. Many countries agree that the real source of social chaos are those violent crime from illegal drug trafficking which process by the drug cartels. Simply holding and consuming drugs cause very low damage to others, therefore decrimtinalization on drugs consumption exists its own rationality.

    Social and cultural factors, the concept of criminal policy, and the background of its drug problems all deeply influence every countries when they need to develop drug policies. Because of its leadership position, United States of America ''s drug policy has certain influence to Latin American countries. When it comes to discuss the international treatments on drug users, European countries are the most representative, due to its more mature development of drug-related laws and regulations, especially Dutch’s liberal drug policy, should be the most famous one in the world. The reduce supply-oriented drug policy has been realized in Latin America more than 50 years, but such drug policy has been proved to be ineffective in the recent 10 years. Therefore, Latinamerican countries have also started to discuss a different policy on drugs, which is the decriminalization, hoping to solve the drug problems which have troubled Latin America for a long time..

    Mexico is the most directly affected by the negative impact caused by the global war on drugs, the drug problem seriously affecting Mexico''s social, economic and political dimensions. Mexican drug cartels fortuned in the 1960s when United States started to increase demand on drugs. Under drug cartel’s control, Mexico has suffered from suerious drug problems. Since 2006 Mexican drug war has launched, the worsening of public security and the corruption problems, make government at a loss, and people are still living in misery. Faced the failure on global drug war, the decriminalization of drug consumption also affect Mexico. In 2009 Mexico decriminalize personal comsumption on drugs, but the law still has lots of controversy. And by the influence of lots of countries are realizing legalization of marijuana for recreational use, D.F. the capital of Mexico, also started a lively discussions about the legalization of marihuana in 2013. Hoping to find a new way out of the ineffective situation of combat drug problems in Mexico.
    Appears in Collections:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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