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    題名: 從非洲到中國:美國黑人抗爭思想的國際視角
    其他題名: The Black-Americans struggle in black internationalism
    作者: 林士鐸;Lin, Shih-Duo
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    劉曉鵬
    關鍵詞: 美國黑人;泛非主義;共產主義;African-Americans;Pan-Africanism;Communism
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2016-01-22 14:20:24 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究探討不同時期的美國黑人抗爭思想發展,從抗爭思想到國際主義的演變分為四個階段。第一個階段以美國黑人正式接受教育為背景做開端,布克.華盛頓 (Booker T. Washington)提出妥協式政治,提倡黑人以技能換取經濟地位,並逐漸享有民權的理念。同時期的杜波依斯 (W.E.B. Dubois)和馬庫斯.加維 (Marcus Garvey)則擁護泛非主義,杜波依斯呼籲黑人以非洲文明為榮,要求立即擁有民權,加維則強調黑人應返回非洲建國。第二階段探討二十世紀初美國黑人勞工面臨的種族問題與美國共產黨的成立。共產國際在第四屆莫斯科共產國際大會確立民族自決策略,並據此成為美國共產黨的黑人方針。在第三階段則討論美國共產黨成立後的相關事件與分裂。美國共產黨的黑人領袖,詹姆斯.福特 (James W. Ford)和哈利.赫伍德 (Harry Haywood)因為內部路線分歧和外部美國政府打壓下而產生分裂,致使美國共產黨仍得不到黑人支持。最後第四階段則深究美國共產黨式微後,激進派黑人領袖,羅伯特.威廉斯 (Robert F. Williams)等人為取得中國共產黨在國際上的聲援,開始與中國領導者毛澤東建立互助關係,但毛澤東逝世後,隨著美中之間外交關係的改善,中國無意繼續聲援激進派,自此激進派黑人對抗美國政府的聲浪逐漸沒落。本研究以美國黑人抗爭思想為主軸,輔以論述各時期代表性的黑人領袖,期在完整闡述黑人抗爭思想史的興衰,透過從瞭解泛非主義到共產主義之間的轉變和衝突,進一步體會美國黑人不斷奮鬥爭取權利的過程。
    This thesis is a four stage investigation into the development of Black-American civil rights and the struggles encountered along the way. The first stage of investigation starts with the Politics of Accommodation proposed by Booker Washington in the late 19th century. He advocated that, in order to establish ultimate equality, Black-Americans should be educated using professional techniques. Meanwhile, W.E.B. Dubois urged Black-Americans to be proud of being Africans and to shout loudly for their civil rights. Marcus Garvey supported the idea that Black-Americans should unite to establish their own country and government in Africa. The next stage observes the racial issues of Black-Americans and their relation with the founding of Communist Party USA (CPUSA). Here, Communist International (Comintern) asserted the strategy of self-determination for Black-Americans and CPUSA. The third stage is related to CPUSA’s efforts for Black-Americans and the subsequent divergence of CPUSA. Two major black leaders in CPUSA, James W. Ford and Harry Haywood, were divergent due to conflicting opinions regarding party policy and handling the pressure from the US government, ultimately causing the failure of CPUSA to gain the support of Black-Americans. The final stage concerns the Black-American radical leader, Robert F. Williams, and his acts to seek out the support of the Chinese Communist Party. This cooperation dissolved, however, following the improvement of the relationship between China and the US coupled with the passing of Mao Tse-tung. This lead to the decline in number of radical Black-Americans who rejected the US government. Overall, the goal of this thesis is to describe the history of Black-Americans and ultimately instill in the reader an appreciation of the value of freedom and equal rights in today’s era.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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