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    題名: 美國第一夫人角色轉型 : 以艾蓮娜 . 羅斯福對黑人之人權立場為例
    其他題名: Function of transformative US first lady : the case study of Eleanor Roosevelt’s attitude toward civil right of African American
    作者: 張芳綺;Chang, Fang-Chi
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    劉曉鵬
    關鍵詞: 非裔美國人;艾蓮娜‧羅斯福;第一夫人;African American;Eleanor Roosevelt;First Lady
    日期: 2015
    上傳時間: 2016-01-22 14:20:23 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 隨著美國產生首任第一家庭是由非裔美國人組成,在台灣,有些人認為歐巴馬當選總統,代表了非裔美國史的突破;在美國,有些人認為蜜雪兒‧歐巴馬是第一位非裔第一夫人,比歐巴馬當上總統更加有意義,此議題也重新喚起了非裔美國史的研究、種族議題的關注。

    本論文透過第一夫人的角色與功能為主軸,以探討第一夫人在非裔美國史中的立場。因為在美國憲法中,並沒有提到任何行政長官配偶,應當履行的責任,尤其第一夫人並不是經由人民選出來的,人們對於第一夫人在政治體制中的定位,與總統之職比較起來,可能無從得知,尤其在非裔美國史中少有人提起第一夫人的功勞,因此本文以富蘭克林‧羅斯福總統的太太艾蓮娜‧羅斯福,擔任第一夫人時期,如何發揮第一夫人的功能與作用,以探討黑人問題的發展。

    在章節的分配上,第一章為緒論,闡述國內外缺乏第一夫人在非裔美國史中,所持有的態度與立場。第二章從社交功能、民權作用,以探討艾蓮娜之前的第一夫人,在國家體制中所扮演的角色。第三章則將探討艾蓮娜如何突破第一夫人的傳統功能,促成社會議題的轉變。第四章詳述艾蓮娜如何在新政、第二次世界大戰時期,發揮第一夫人一職所賦予的權利,為非裔美國人發聲。

    本論文研究發現,艾蓮娜‧羅斯福將第一夫人缺乏正式的職責定義,法律的保障,這些種種的不穩定性轉換成優勢,在國家、政府、社會三者之間發揮溝通、試探、協調的影響力,不僅僅比任何政治家都更努力推動黑人民權運動,也真正的推動了美國第一夫人角色的轉型。
    Nowadays the United States has first African American first family. In Taiwan, some people think Barack Obama won the President election, that representing a breakthrough in African American history. In the United States, some people think Michelle Obama is the first African American first lady, who is more meaningful than Barack as President. No matter President Obama or first lady Michelle who is turn over the new page of African American history. The African American study and racial issue not only revive again, but also many people concern about it.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to explore the role and function of US first lady’s attitude toward the African American history. Actually, there has no official job description about First Lady in any country in any law. Unlike the presidency, which parameters of the office are discussed in Article 2 of the US Constitution, the first ladyship lacks constitutional guidelines because first ladies are unelected and unappointed, even the existence of the institution as an office, much less the scope and duties of that office, remains a point of debate. However, President Roosevelt’s wife Eleanor Roosevelt transformed the function of first lady from national hostess into activist successfully, which is also the reason why this thesis focus on how Eleanor served as first lady to play the function and action to develop African American’s issue.

    The structure of the thesis is divided into five chapters. The introduction chapter explains lack of first lady’s attitude and position in African American study. The second chapter describes how first ladies develop social function and civil right function in national political system before Eleanor Roosevelt become first lady. The third chapter discusses how Eleanor Roosevelt to break traditional functions of first lady to be activist. The fourth chapter analyzes how Eleanor Roosevelt to play the role of first lady to fight for civil right during the New Deal and the World War II.

    The thesis concludes that Eleanor Roosevelt had positive attitude to convert first lady lacks normal definition of duty, legal protection, and sort of instabilities into the advantage. Furthermore, she not only worked harder than other politicians to promote African American civil right movement, but also explored the potential function of first lady. She has the contribution in African American and first lady history.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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