Human resource management (HRM) practices have been recognized increasingly as a basis for achieving competitive advantage. However, conceptualizing HRM in the project context is still underdeveloped. The primary purpose of this study is to validate a framework for assessing the associations among HRM practices, project success, and organizational benefit in new product development (NPD) firms. The study also evaluates the moderating role of working environment factors in the relationship between HRM practices and NPD project success. The analyses of HRM practices and relationships with NPD project success and organizational benefit are based on an industry-wide survey in the Taiwanese high-tech industry. The results suggest that implementation of HRM practices contribute significantly to NPD project success, which subsequently bringing a number of potential benefits to a firm. In addition, the findings indicate that the positive relationship between HRM practices and NPD project success depends on work hours and time availability.