|摘要: ||莎士比亞的《馬克白》於一六〇六年搬演，敘述蘇格蘭傅奇中的三位女巫，以預言誘騙馬克白謀殺鄧肯國王。此劇一般認為是恭維新登基的國王詹姆士一世之作，因為新王是劇中班果的後裔。莎士比亞創造的女巫取自多樣題材，包括中古世紀歷史紀錄、塞尼加的《米蒂亞》和詹姆士時期的奇聞逸事。在布坎南的《蘇格蘭史》(1582)和荷林希德的《編年史》(1587)中，馬克白是透過超自然的生靈精怪得知預言。 然而，由於詹姆士查禁異教徒膜拜，視預言能力為巫術，莎士比亞遂將生靈精怪改寫成女巫。 超自然力在《馬克白》中扮演推動劇情的重要角色*七位女性角色有五位牽連 於巫術實踐中，如黑可悌、三位怪異姊妹和馬克白夫人。在這個女巫領域裡，階級的最頂層是以黑可悌為首腦，怪異姊妹與馬克白夫人都是她忠實的部屬。這些女巫的描繪，某個程度來說，代表社會上對超自然的態度。 研究莎士比亞所參考的資料，筆者闡明黑可悌、怪異三姊妹和馬克白夫人所依據的原型基礎，進而解釋這些角色如何被塑造成女巫。詹姆士繼承英格蘭王位後，加重實行巫術的刑責。配合詹姆士時期的社會與政治氛圍，莎士比亞必須與基督教所篤信的一神信仰觀念協商，改編蘇格蘭傅奇的神祕怪力亂神，提供與國王觀點相符的版本。|
Shakespeare's Macbeth, written and performed in 1606, revealed a Scottish legend of three witches whose prophecy tricked Macbeth into murdering the King Duncan. The play was believed to be a compliment to the descendant of Banquo, the newly succeeded King James. Shakespeare drew on a variety of materials to create his witches, including medieval historical records, Seneca's Medea, and Jacobean anecdotes. In Buchanan's History of Scotland (1582) and Holinshed's Chronicles (1587), Macbeth learned the prophecy from supernatural creatures. However, King James prohibited against the non-Christian pagan cult and regarded the prophecy as sorcery; consequently, Shakespeare turned these creatures into witches. In Macbeth, the supernatural plays an important role in pushing the action forward. Five of the seven female characters are involved with witchcraft: Hecate, three weird sisters, and Lady Macbeth. In this witchdom, Hecate situates at the top of the hierarchy as the leader, and the weird sisters and Lady Macbeth are her loyal subordinates. The portrayals of these witches, to some extent, represent the Jacobean social attitudes towards supernatural. By studying the materials Shakespeare consulted, Yd like to identify the archetypes which Hecate, weird sisters and Lady Macbeth are based on. Furthermore, I demonstrate the ways in which these characters are fashioned into the witches. After King James succeeded to the English throne, he increased penalties for the practice of witchcraft. In order to accommodate to the change in Jacobean social and political climate, Shakespeare must negotiate with the monotheistic Christian beliefs, and adapted the mysterious Scottish legend into a version in sympathy with the King's perspective.