Appraise whether Taiwan should levy the alcohol health and welfare surcharge. This study first analyzes the relationship between alcohol-drinking and the related health care utilization, and then estimates the overall medical costs of alcohol- related illnesses and the traffic accidents. A two-part negative binomial regression model is employed to estimate the impact of excessive alcohol drinking on the health care utilization using 2005 National Health Interview Survey(NHIS) merging with 2005 outpatient (CD) and inpatient utilization (DD) files National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Furthermore, both of CD and DD files of NHIRD in 2006-2008 are used to estimate the incremental medical costs of alcohol-related illnesses and traffic incidents. Our results show that for patients consuming excessive alcohol, they have a higher chance of being hospitalized. It is estimated that the medical cost of alcohol-related illnesses and the traffic incidents is increased by around NT$ 7 billion, and this amount is increasing over years. It indicates that excessive alcohol consumption is not only harmful for a personal health; it causes a tremendous health care burden for a society as well. The authorities should consider levying the alcohol health and welfare surcharge prudently, since not only can it ease part of NHI financial burden, it can also lower the alcohol consumption, and then reduce the related medical costs.