In this paper, we establish an economic production quantity model for a manufacturer (or wholesaler) with defective items when its supplier offers an up-stream trade credit M while it in turn provides its buyers (or retailers) a down-stream trade credit N. The proposed model is in a general framework that includes numerous previous models as special cases. In contrast to the traditional differential calculus approach, we use a simple-to-understand and easy-to-apply arithmetic–geometric inequality method to find the optimal solution. Furthermore, we provide some theoretical results to characterize the optimal solution. Finally, several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed model and the optimal solution.
Computers & Industrial Engineering 66(4), pp. 1125–1130