道路交通事故死傷將導致嚴重的社會成本，政府之道路安全改善計畫應與交通事故死傷有直接關聯，並藉由適當的道路安全績效指標衡量道路交通系統之整體安全度，以此評估改善經費的效益。本研究根據警政署交通事故資料庫分析我國主要道路交通安全問題，構建道路安全績效指標之衡量架構，包括死傷指標、重點行為指標及政策執行指標，並以主成分分析法賦予指標權重，合併相關變數；以主成分得分計算縣市道路安全績效。結果顯示不同的比較基礎所得之縣市道安績效排序亦不相同，分類排序比較可令縣市政府更清楚了解個別問題所在，主管機關更可藉此調整道安改善經費的配置，提高經費的運用效率。整體而言，以臺北市、臺北縣、臺南市之績效較佳，而臺東縣、臺南縣、臺中縣之績效較差。各縣市之道安績效表現似略有城鄉差異。 Road traffic accidents induce serious social costs. Traffic safety improvement plans proposed and carried out by the government should be guided by analysis of accident casualty statistics. In addition, we need to measure and reflect the integral levels for overall traffic systems using proper road safety performance indicators. Road safety performance indices can be employed to measure the benefits of safety improvement expenditures. This study identifies the main road safety issues in Taiwan determined by analyzing the road crash database built by the National Police Agency. This study then constructs a measurement framework for road safety performance indicators, including mortality/injury indicators, key behavioral indicators and policy indicators. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to combine correlated variables and to obtain the weights for the variables. The principal component scores are used to measure the road safety performances of counties and cities. The results show that the performance ranking of each type of road safety performance indicator varies with different comparison bases. Counties and cities can identify their specific traffic safety problems according to the different comparison results of different road safety performance indicators, and allocate funds to the proper road safety improvement projects to increase the application efficiency of their expenditures. Overall, the traffic safety performances of Taipei City, New Taipei City and Tainan City were better; and the traffic safety performances of Taitung County, Tainan County, and Taichung County were relatively worse. In addition, there were differences in the road safety performances between counties and cities located in urban or rural areas.
運輸學刊=Journal of the Chinese Institute of Transportation 25(2)，頁1-23