|摘要: ||現今企業之間的競爭以及消費者維護自身權益意識的抬頭，使得提升貨品品質檢驗 的能力更被業界所重視。若企業未能將不良品檢驗出來，而將之販售給消費者，不僅會 因退貨而產生退貨成本，更進而減少了銷售所帶來的利潤，甚至導致商譽受損，降低企 業未來的競爭力。另一方面，製造商為增加其銷售量或提高市場的佔有率經常會對零售 商提供信用交易的優惠。本研究考慮經濟訂購量模型，在進貨批量中含有不良品 的情形下，零售商會進行貨品品質檢驗並且假設檢驗的結果會發生型I 和型Ⅱ錯 誤；為提高檢定力(power of test)，零售商透過投資資金來改善貨品檢驗的品質， 減少不良品流入市場的比例。進一步，製造商提供二選一信用交易策略，以使零售 商每次訂購較多的數量或儘早付清貨款。本研究的目的是找出零售商的最適訂購數量、 運送次數、檢定力和付款策略以使其單位時間的總利潤有最大值。首先，利用數學分析 方法找出最適解存在的充分且必要條件。接著，發展出一個演算法以利求解。最後，舉 數值範例說明求解過程並對主要參數進行敏感性分析，以了解各參數值變動對最適解所造成的影響。所得結果可提供給擬定訂購策略的管理者重要之參考依據，進而提 高企業的利潤與競爭力。|
Competition between enterprises, and the rise of consumer consciousness in protecting their rights, has led to increased attention on quality inspection abilities. If enterprises cannot filter defective goods, and sell it to consumers, not only will this incur return costs for the goods, it will also harm profits from sales, or even damage its goodwill, decreasing competitiveness. On the other hand, suppliers often offer favourable credit transactions to retailers to increase its sales or to increase its market share. This research considers the economic order quantity model, in situations where defective goods are supplied in inward purchases, where retailers will undergo quality inspection, and assumes that the inspection results to contain type I and type II errors. To increase the power of the test, retailers will increase their investments in quality inspection, reducing the proportion of substandard goods from reaching consumers. Furthermore, suppliers offer a two-part credit transaction strategy, such that the retailer can order more goods or repay its debt quicker for each order. The aim of this research is to find the optimum order quantity, freight frequency, the power of the test, and payment strategy, such that the total profit per unit time is maximised. Firstly, mathematical analysis will be used to find the necessary and sufficient conditions for optimal solution. Subsequently, an algorithm will be developed to facilitate the solution. Finally, numerical examples will be presented to illustrate the solution procedure, and the sensitivity analyses of some main parameters will be provided to demonstrate the proposed model. The results can be used as a reference for making an order strategy by managers, and thereby increase enterprise profitability and competitiveness.