南宋面對女真以及後來蒙古的威脅，於沿邊地區設置了宣撫、制置等司，以負責邊境安 危。宣撫司與制置司，在當時被尊稱為小朝廷，主要是長吏可以自辟幕僚。這些長吏大 都以范仲淹為典範，選擇幕僚的標準是：重其氣節、才能，可為己師，而不以官員的資 序為重。這使得一些受到資序限制或因過失貶降的文臣官員，可以前往擔任幕僚一職， 也讓幕府成為人才聚集之地。幕僚本身的才能既是一時之選，又經過幕府參佐的磨練， 加上幕主的提拔，往往有利仕途的發展，南宋後期不少方面大員，都曾任過幕僚。因此， 不少官員寧願請辭中央官職，改任宣撫、制置司幕僚。然而，幕僚與幕主的關係太過緊 密，常被歸類為同一政治集團，日後成為政敵攻擊的對象。 Southern Song Dynasty established Xuan Fu Si And Zhi Zhi Si to protect security of borders when faced the threat of Nuzhen and Mongola. Xuan Fu Si And Zhi Zhi Si were respected the synonym of small government because the governor could employ staff members. These governors respected Fan Zhong Yuan as a role model. The standards of employing staff members contained official’s characters, talent and high self-discipline. The qualification and seniority were not the first priority. So those who limited by qualification and seniority and officials that had been degraded could be employed as staff members. Thus the small government became center of excellent officials. The staff members’s excellent talents, trainings and experiences and promotions by governors were created new and bright ways to political career. The important officials in central government were elected from staff members in late Southern Song Dynasty. So many officials would rather resign the position in central government and employed in staff members of Xuan Fu Si And Zhi Zhi Si. Because the relationships of governors and staff members were too close and familiar, they were labeled as the same political group and attacked by political opposite party.