跨越疆界(I)－翻譯、知識：以「多雷托翻譯學院」(School of Toledo)及「江 南製造局翻譯館」(Translation Department of Jiangnan Arsenal)為例 西元711 至1492 年西班牙在阿拉伯文化的統治下長達七百多年。1805 年， 多雷托(Toledo)為第一個被西班牙收復的城市，亦成為當時西班牙的政治 首都。多雷托大主教Raimundo 倡導翻譯，欲藉由翻譯將中古世紀或遭受 摧毀或失佚的古希臘羅馬之宗教哲學作品從阿拉伯文再轉譯回拉丁文。國 王阿豐索十世(Alfonso X)則透過翻譯鞏固西班牙文取代拉丁文成為國語 之地位，此時期的翻譯則不侷限於宗教哲學，而觸及其他範疇之著作。散 居多雷托的回教徒、天主教徒與猶太人造就了多雷托成為中世紀歐洲翻譯 的中心。綜觀而言，「多雷托翻譯學院」在西方翻譯史上佔有一席之地， 不論是從翻譯的規模與影響，亦是從今日跨文化的研究範疇觀點評論。十 九世紀中葉起，列強侵略中國，中國面臨存亡之威脅，迫使面臨變法圖強 之改變。「江南製造局翻譯館」在此救國強民的理念下，由維新人士推動 誕生，藉由翻譯輸入西方科學知識，為近代中國的現代化注入力量，走出 傳統的窠臼。本論文將以東西方兩個翻譯樞紐為例，探討翻譯在人類文明 發展及知識傳播所扮演的角色－以Budick 與Iser 的「文化之可譯」(The translatability of cultures)為佐證；及翻譯在主事者－意即Lefevere 所指的贊助者的思想意圖下所承載的角色與任務。 The period from 711 to 1492 marks the reign of Arabic culture over Spain. In 1085, the conquest of Toledo signified Spain’s first success in recovering its territory, and Toledo became Spain’s political capital. During the 12th century, its archbishop, Raimundo, initiated and promoted the translation—from classical Arabic to Latin—of lost religious or philosophical works. In the next century, King Alfonso X furthered the effort by taking works of other fields into the scope of translation, seeking to make Spanish—in place of Latin—the official language of the country. In the meanwhile, local Muslims, Catholics, and Jews all contributed to making Toledo the stronghold of translation in Europe. Considering its scale and influence as well as its possible applications in recent cross-cultural studies, the School of Toledo (Toledo School of Translators) certainly deserves a niche in the history of western translation. On the other hand, beginning as early as mid-19th century, aggressions by foreign countries gradually drove China to the brink of perishing. The jeopardy urged China to fulfill modernization reforms. It was under this circumstance that the Translation Department of Jiangnan Arsenal was founded, through which the reformists at the time sought to break loose from obsolete traditions and to embrace modern technological knowledge via translation. Based on analyses of these two translation centers—School of Toledo in the West and Translation Department of Jiangnan Arsenal in the East—this current paper attempts to elaborate on the possible roles translation plays in culture development and knowledge dissemination. Also the paper will put emphasis on Budick and Iser’s notions on the translatability of cultures as well as Lefevere’s opinion about the functions and missions of translation under the ideological influences of its sponsor.