|摘要: ||產出數位作品是一個複雜的問題解決任務，設計師以作品欲呈現的特效作為問題起 點，正確表徵與剖析這些問題，並逐步找尋這些問題的解決方法。而範例式問題導向 學習策略提供學習者機會模擬複雜的問題解決歷程，著重學習者主動創造知識的歷 程，不僅有助於學習結果的遠遷移。然而先前研究對於該策略成效討論不一，深入探 索其關鍵點在於範例的設計、呈現方式與過程中教師所提供的鷹架引導。本研究立基 於認知負荷理論，擬設計與測試範例式問題導向學習系統中不同的鷹架設計對於職前 多媒體設計師作品產出表現的影響。第一年，以準實驗研究法分析兩種範例與問題配 對模式在不同的問題解決情境下(單獨與合作解題)對於設計師空間邏輯解題能力的影 響。第二年擬從問題與範例表徵方式以及完成題目兩個向度設計鷹架，並探討設計師 在與不同表徵方式的範例互動後，接續不同類型完成題目(正向與逆向)的學習任務，其 數位特效解題能力是否會有所不同。最後，反思能力的養成對於學生數位作品創作能 力的提昇極為重要，因此本研究第三年將探究由學習系統引導學習者進行自我反思的 策略與同儕對話協作反思的鷹架策略的影響，本研究期望藉由研究結果可作為未來規 劃訓練內容與實施時之重要依據。|
The process of creating products by maximizing the merits of diverse media production software is very complex. Designers are highly demanded of their cognitive abilities to represent the problems, in this study referring to media effects to be presented in their products, analyze the problems and generate possible solutions. Therefore, the worked-example problem-based learning strategy, which engages learners in practicing the above-mentioned process, is frequently adopted to cultivate novice designer this competence. Three research gaps after in-depth review of research in the area of Worked Example problem-based learning were identified and discussed grounded on cognitive loading theory: First, the sequence effects of pairing examples with given problems on learners’ performance in space reasoning were less examined when considering the variability of collaborative problem-solving. Second, the scaffolding impacts of example representation formats interacting with the different fading patterns on learners’ performance in solving problems about multimedia effects require empirical evidence. Last, but the most importantly, reflection is importance in developing designers’ competency, which is supported by many studies. Majority of the research emphasizes on the role of “self” in the reflection process. However, argued from the collective intelligence perspective, that peer assessment and dialogue could enhance more deliberate and collaborative reflection is reasonably anticipated and required empirical examination. This study aims to explore the impact of the worked example problem-based strategy incorporating diverse scaffolds on student designers’ competency in creating digital products. A three-year study is proposed. The first-year study will focus on developing the problem-based system, which will engage learners in interacting with the elaborated worked example and presenting their solution paths to the given problems. Additionally, a quasi-experiment will be conducted to investigate the impacts of the example-based problem-based strategy, employing two types of pairing examples with problems under collaborative and individual problem-solving contexts, on 104 subjects’ performance in solving space reasoning problems. The second-year study will implement a quasi-experiment to exam subjects’ experiences in interacting with two mixed types of scaffold mechanisms embedded in the system. The third-year study will emphasize on the importance of long-term reflections when subjects are situated in simulating real-world projects. A quasi–experimental design is proposed to investigate the effects of two types of deliberate reflection (self-explanation vs. peer dialogue) on subjects’ design performance. A feature enabling learners to interact with themselves and their peers and continually modify their solution models to the given problems will be built into the learning system.