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    Title: 極簡主義的詩學: 當代東亞電影中長鏡與遠景鏡頭風格的文化意涵(II)
    Other Titles: Poetics of Minimalism: Defining the Long Take/Long Shot Stylistics of Contemporary East Asian Filmmaking (Ii)
    Authors: 吳怡芬
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系
    Date: 2012-08
    Issue Date: 2015-05-12 13:14:00 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究試圖為長鏡頭 (Long take) 和遠景鏡頭 (Long shot) 在當代東亞電影作品中尋找定位。日本大師小津安二郎(Ozu Yasujiro)與台灣導演侯孝賢 (Hou Hsiao-Hsien)以遠距離的攝影機架設,疏離觀察的拍攝風格,以及省略性的敘述方式 (elliptical narrative),影響了一些亞洲年輕世代的電影工作者。這些新世代的導演將小津與侯孝賢的鏡頭風格做了一些微妙的變化,用以呈現他們對於現代亞洲社會文化景觀的觀察。竄升於90年代的新銳,如日本的是枝裕和 (Koreeda Hirokazu)、台灣的張作驥 (Chang Cho-Chi)、與中國的賈樟柯 (Jia Zhangke),三位擅長以長鏡拍攝的電影作者,或多或少受到侯孝賢與小津的影響,他們的作品風格將成為本研究的重點;透過他們作品做為例子,重新思考長鏡頭和遠景鏡頭於當代東亞電影的意涵。尤其當作者論 (Authorship)、寫實主義 (Realism) 或是第三電影 (The Third Cinema) 理論常被用來做為論點依據討論亞洲電影時,本研究試圖證明,除了鏡頭美學的考量,長鏡和遠景鏡頭在東亞電影裡的呈現,其實蘊含了歷史文化經驗的記憶,豐富了影像的人文深度。 侯孝賢建立了長鏡與遠景鏡頭的表現內涵,使其帶有濃厚的亞洲色彩,David Bordwell 稱之為亞洲的極簡主義。在亞洲電影工作者的印象中,長鏡的使用創造一種現實時空完整性的效果,反映人們日常生活的自然表現。因此,三位導演偏好長鏡與遠景鏡頭的使用,並不全然只是鏡頭美學的考量,而似乎更是一種「生活經驗」的呈現。有鑑於西方學者在解讀亞洲電影偏重於電影語言、形式技巧的著墨,甚少將歷史文化因素涵蓋在鏡頭拍攝的分析,本研究計畫以小津與侯孝賢的電影風格作為前提,連結三位導演的作品,提出亞洲導演擅長的極簡風格可能塑形於相似的歷史背景與相互的文化影響。換言之,長鏡與遠景鏡頭在亞洲電影所呈現的不只是電影美學,而是一份文化內涵,影射了一種歷史記憶,一種文化經驗,一種生活態度,亦或是一種政治批判。想要深度探討的是,這幾位亞洲導演對於長鏡與遠景鏡頭的使用,除了是一種拍攝風格的發展,保存了現實 的時間與空間的完整性,是不是也逐步成為一種新的電影修辭,賦予影像歷史、文化、政治的解讀意義,呈現一份東亞獨特的人文哲學。
    This research attempts to locate the meanings of the long take and long shot in contemporary East Asian Cinema, an aesthetic tendency that seems so prevailing in some recent eminent works. The detached observational style that Ozu Yasujiro (Japan) and Hou Hsiao-Hsien (Taiwan) have employed through their distanced and fixed camera positioning and their preference for the long take have resurfaced in the work of a few of the younger generation of filmmakers in Asia, who develop many subtle variants of Hou’s and Ozu’s stylistics and apply them to capture their observations of the modern Asian socio-cultural landscape. Having been considered to be influenced by Ozu’s and Hou’s style, the films of Koreeda Hirokazu (Japan), Chang Tso-Chi (Taiwan), and Jia Zhangke (China) will be linked here by their stylistic concerns as examples to reconsider the usage of the long take/long shot in Asian cinema. While the latter is often discussed in terms of authorship, the purpose of this research is to demonstrate the significance of socio-cultural experiences that enrich the meanings of the long take/long shot employed in the films. Hou Hsiao-Hsien has established the distant long shot and static long take as expressive and denotative devices in themselves, laying the basis of a regional style which David Bordwell has called an “Asian minimalism.” The Asian filmmakers’ favoured usage of the long take/long shot seems to be a product of shared cultural experience and not exclusively attributable to the claims of authorship. The impression among the Asian filmmakers is that the usage of the long take permits an action to unfurl completely, creating an effect of temporal reality, which allows a presentation reflecting people’s daily, spontaneous life. Therefore, I’d suggest that the stylistics of long take/long shot, seem to have become an Asian stylistic convention, which has shaped an oblique yet historically-informed filmmaking strategy which alludes to socio-cultural upheaval without offering direct explications. This raises questions about whether Asian filmmakers’ use of the long take/long shot is an elaboration of cinematic style that preserves the spatial and temporal integrity of reality, or whether it has evolved into a new cinematic rhetoric charged with socio-political comment. Starting from a questioning of the underlying assumption of western film theories (as exemplified by Paul Schrader and André Bazin), my interest in cultural connotation more than aesthetic stance carried by the long take/long shot urges me to look closely at the shots and probe the meanings insinuated by the filmmakers’ concern with socio-cultural issues.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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