|摘要: ||談到禪宗的公案，一般的印象是十分費解，需要有相當的慧根才能體得妙悟，參透禪的境界。事實上，禪宗是一種文化現象，表面是高深難測或看似荒謬的機鋒問答，內涵上和各宗各派禪師所主張的修行與證悟脈絡有密不可分的關係。 本計畫「從模因論看《景德傳燈錄》對答的文化意涵」旨在運用「模因」（meme）的角度，觀察禪師與弟子、信徒之間一問一答隱藏的文化意義。禪宗的對答體不斷的傳播、仿製，可視為是「模因」的傳播。透過多元應答的研究，顯現每個禪師體悟方式、境界的不同。面對不同的問題，同一禪師的應答是模因傳播的過程，反之，面對相同的問題，不同禪師的應答亦顯出不同模因的傳播，這兩種現象可歸結為「基因型的模因」和「表現型的模因」的展現。 過去將禪宗的公案或禪師的教化分成許多類型，但僅止於現象的分類，沒能深入探索分類所反映的深層意義。筆者認為這些紛陳的對答形式，是因為「模因」在傳播的過程中會發生種種的變體，包含模仿（imitation）、另鑄（reorganization）、移置（displacement），語言中的具體表現是詞彙的變異、語法的變異、語音的變異等等。 利用模因論（memetics）分析《景德傳燈錄》收錄的機鋒問答，呈現不同模因的傳播過程，將有助於描繪、說明各派禪宗的文化、思想。|
The kōan, which is a fundamental part of the history and lore of Zen Buddhism, generally gives the impression of being incomprehensible. Only through the vehicle of wisdom can kōan be understood. In fact, Zen is a cultural phenomenon. On the surface the quick-witted dialogues seem profound and unfathomable, even absurd-sounding, but underneath these thoughts are inseparably tied to prapatti or the practice of Buddhism as well as adhigama or enlightenment. This project aims to examine the cultural implications of dialogues in “Jinde Chuandeng Lu”, meme, quick-witted dialogues, Zen kōan from the perspective of Memetics, by observing the covert cultural implications in the quick-witted dialogues between Zen masters and their disciples/believers. The genre of quick-witted dialogues has been constantly spread and cloned, which can be seen as memetic dissemination. Through research of multiple quick-witted dialogues, various Zen masters’ different methods of enlightenment and states can be revealed. To different questions, one Zen master’s answer goes through the process of memetic dissemination. On the other hand, different Zen masters’ dissimilar answers show different processes of memetic dissemination. These two phenomena can be summed up as “genotype meme” and “phenotype meme.” In the past, the kōan in Zen Buddhism or the teachings of Zen masters were divided into many categories, but they were only categorized based on their surface phenomena, without investigating any deeper meanings. The author considers the reason for these diverse types of dialogues to be the result of the ongoing process of memetic dissemination, which includes imitation, reorganization, and displacement. The concrete manifestations in language are variations in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation. A memetic analysis of the quick-witted dialogues collected in “Jinde Chuandeng Lu”, meme, quick-witted dialogues, Zen kōan and their different processes of memetic dissemination will help describe and explain the culture and ideology of each school of Zen Buddhism.