|摘要: ||本計畫將以句法學角度探討客語的結果結構（Resultative Construction）。計畫主體可分為兩個部份，第一個部份將分類探討所有在客語中用以表達結果的句型結構，已知的四大類結構包括：表結果的複合動詞（Verbal Compound）、動詞後表結果補語短句的附加（Adjunction of Postverbal CP）、含操控語氣的承軸結構（Manipulative Pivotal Construction）、以表原因之子句為補語之承軸結構（Cause-complement Pivotal Construction）。本計畫將仔細探討以上四種特殊結構，並搜集語料尋找客語中其他亦可用以表結果之結構句式。 本計畫的第二部份將比較客語以及漢語表結果之結構相同及相異處。本計畫對於兩種語言的比較主要針對複合動詞的結構，並做出以下論述：兩種語言皆使用以下兩種結構表達結果，複合動詞以及動詞後補語的附加。但客語比起漢語有更多句法上的限制，當表因與果的論元（Argument）同時出現在句子當中時，表因與果的名詞片語必須與主要動詞的論元結構（Argument Structure）相連結：並且表因的論元角色（Thematic Relation）不能比表果的論元角色更為不顯著（Prominence）。藉此本計畫將結合句法以及語意的角度進行觀察、整理、分析、歸納、假設、論述等工作。|
The research project will explore the resultative constructions in Hakka from the syntactic perspective. The project will be divided into two primary parts. In the first part, the research project will investigate all the syntactic structures in Hakka that contain the resultative meaning. It will be argued that Hakka uses at least four syntactic constructions to express the resultative meaning, including verbal compounding, the adjunction of a postverbal resultative CP, manipulative pivotal construction, and cause-complement pivotal construction. All the above four constructions will be scrutinized in this section. The typological study will begin with the four prospective types, but it will not be simply limited to them, any new category may be added to the typology if suggested by the acquired authentic data. In the second part, a comparative study will be conducted to show the similarities and differences on the formation of resultatives between Hakka and Mandarin. The comparison will focus on the investigation of the so-called Resultative Verbal Compounds in the two languages. As hypothesized in this project, if both the causer and causee of a resultative construction are overtly expressed, the Hakka and Mandarin resultatives are the same in that they both got two alternatives to express the resultative meanings. First, the resultative meaning is carried out by an endocentric CP, which occurs post-verbally following the first verb. Second, the second verb denoting the result may incorporate with the first verb to function as a verbal compound, and the two components together convey the “causer-result” relationship. However, it will also be shown in this section, more syntactic and semantic restrictions will be strictly imposed on the Hakka resultatives. In Hakka, neither the causer nor the causee role may be associated with an NP that is outside the thematic structure of the matrix verb. Besides, this project will show that it will result in ungrammaticality if a causer NP is associated with a thematic relation that is less prominent than the thematic relation associated with the causee NP, which shows an integrated approach that include both syntactic and semantic components in the analysis. Besides, the project will show that in order to save these ungrammatical instances in Hakka, the adjunction of a postverbal resultative CP serves as a repairing strategy for the expression of resultative meanings.