|摘要: ||小汽車共乘在臺灣已有二十餘年的發展歷程，可分為嘗試 (民國 83 年之前)、漠視 (民 國 84~94 年)、以及逐漸正視 (95 年迄今) 三個階段，近年來高速公路高乘載車輛專用 路權、小汽車共乘資訊平台及停車轉乘設施等交通環境漸趨成熟，加以行動上網裝置與 油價高漲等外部因素影響，益發凸顯小汽車共乘的潛力。然而國內發展小汽車共乘尚面 臨與公共運輸競合的疑慮、政府部門分工不明確、高乘載車道績效評估方法闕如等議 題，因此本研究將以新北市綠色共乘網 9,924 名共乘會員以及 4,176 條共乘路線之資料 庫為基礎，分析臺灣地區小汽車共乘者及共乘路線特性，探討小汽車共乘在都市與城際 運輸的功能定位，並釐清交通、環保與能源部門推動小汽車共乘之權責。此外，針對國 道一號即將通車之五股楊梅段高乘載車道，本研究將建立多目標高乘載車道績效評估模 式，分析各目標下高乘載車道與一般車道之均衡速率關係，同時彙整國外日益流行的高 乘載收費車道之收費機制，提出費率結構建議，作為未來我國高乘載車道轉型之參考。|
Carpooling in Taiwan has been practiced for over two decades. Three development periods can be generated: 1) before 1994, the government tried to promote carpooling for commute trips; 2) during 1995 through 2005, the government became indifferent to carpooling as a result of the failing attempt in the prior period; and 3) from 2006 to present, the government seems to have reconsidered the potential of carpooling, given the implementation of exclusive high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) right of way, carpooling information platforms, park-and-ride facilities, etc. High gas prices and the prevalence of mobile Internet devices also formulate a carpooling-friendly environment. Currently, the local carpooling movement faces such issues as its competition with public transit, unidentified carpooling authorizes, immature methods for HOV lane performance evaluation, and so on. The objectives of this research include: 1) assessing the characteristics of carpoolers and carpooling routes through the Green Carpool Website, which offers a complete database of 9,924 carpoolers and 4,176 routes; 2) the market segmentation for carpooling within the urban and inter-regional transport system; 3) clarifying the cooperative relationship between the transportation, environment, and energy departments; 4) establishing multi-objective performance evaluation models on speed equilibrium between HOV and general-purpose lanes; and 5) reviewing the pricing schemes of the existing high occupancy-toll (HOT) lanes in the U.S. so as to propose an adaptive tolling structure for the local transportation needs.