|摘要: || 隨著數位設計的工具以及參數化設計思維的逐年活絡，本研究試圖探討參數化城市主義(Parametric Urbanism)在對應到亞洲這種密集又擁擠的城市應該如何被解讀以及詮釋。大約從2008年開始，出現許多參數化城市主義相關的討論以及案例。參數化城市主義的案例中都隱含著一些共通點，其中最讓研究者感到困惑的在於這些案例都是以各種微小但影響深遠的設計參數為基礎，且都以由上而下(Top-down)的設計策略完成。|
究竟怎樣的參數化城市主義才最貼近城市本身，而非只是存在電腦中的新理想城市模型(New Ideal City Model) ？本研究認為因為人的需求出現在城市中的支應性「二次性施工」，是城市構成核心價值之外，也應該是能被參數化設計應用的設計元素之一。因為城市設計如果只剩下各種參數的調整，那麼與城市、與居民、與城市各種活動等產生關聯性的機會也就會趨近於零；因為城市相關的議題跟尺度有莫大的關聯，一旦尺度被拉大到都市規劃的範疇，也就落入一個無法觸動人們的感情，趨於相當中性的決策而已。
With the rise of digital design tools and parametric design, this study attempts to discuss how parametric urbanism should be interpreted in densely populated and crowded cities in Asia. A great deal of discussion including case studies on parametric urbanism has emerged since 2008. These case studies share some common features; however, one of these features has proved to be most confusing, that is although all the case studies are based on small but profoundly influential design parameters, their design follows a top-down approach.
This study holds the view about cities, that a city is constituted by the activity trajectories of “people” and “interaction between people”. Human activities make it possible to distinguish public and private areas and to define boundaries of areas with different or overlapping functions. The majority of systems, cultures, urban characteristics and even architectural styles and urban scales are formed from human activities. Therefore, it is believed that urban characteristics can only be discussed based on the scale of human activities.
What kind of parametric urbanism is the closest to the city itself? Instead of the New Ideal City Model that only exists in the computer, it is considered in this study that human needs appear in the affordance of “secondary construction”. In addition to being the core component constituting a city, human needs should be one of the elements in parametric design. If design is carried out by merely adjusting various parameters with no regard to human needs, the chance of the design achieving a relationship to the city, residents, and their activities will approach zero. Since city-related issues depend significantly on the scale, once the scale is expanded to urban planning, design tends to become composed of neutral decisions that cannot connect with people.
These small and highly varied objects of “secondary construction” are observed and studied in order to transform their characteristics into design inspirations, in the hope of producing designs that satisfy and echo impromptu public and semi-public activities. With the help of Rhinoceros and Grasshopper tools, certain rules and models are created. Such an approach according to the researchers can offer an explanation of parametric urbanism that incorporates mutual feedback with the city itself. The researchers attempted to steer away from currently popular macro-scale parametric urbanism, and instead, approach the issue from a “bottom-up” and “micro-scale” angle.
Based on the configuration logic of “additional components” for affordance purposes, objects and modules are designed to possess two important features: flexibility to variations and affordance. Digitally generated units enable people to DIY and adjust components in accordance with their own needs. Resembling IKEA, DIY design of urban components incorporates the spirit of the times the creators live in and therefore, the final outcome is able to fulfill people’s needs.