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    Title: 宋代老子學之心性論研究 : 以「儒道會通」視域為觀察核心
    Other Titles: A research on the theories of human nature in the Laozi studies of the Song dynasty : the scope of "the communication between Confucianism and Taoism" as the essence of examination
    Authors: 董立民;Tung, Le-Ming
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    高柏園
    Keywords: 宋代;老子學;儒道會通;宋明理學;Song Dynasty;the Laozi Studies;the Communication between Confucianism and Taoism;Neo-Confucianism
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:55:59 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在性理思潮的影響下,宋代注疏家們競相為道家思想的詮解開闢新視域。以當時的《老子》注疏為例,其質與量均甚為可觀,且能深刻反映出宋代儒道之間對話與交融的學術風尚。若吾人能深入探究宋代老子學的義理內容,除了可協助補足老學研究的環節、以求建構更完善的老學史之外,亦可藉此側顯性理思潮對宋代整體學術氛圍的影響力。

    本論文以宋代老子學為探討的對象,則所面對的原典自以宋代老子注疏為主。而如此一來,必須要關注兩方面的問題:其一,既為注疏,則難免涉及注釋的效力問題。其二,如果老學心性論為本文的核心所在,則必然會切入宋人在其性理之學背景下所觀察到的老學視域。在時代氛圍與個人特質交織之間,所詮釋的經典會呈顯出何等樣態?是否足以成為當時「儒道會通」風氣的明證?此一問題之重要性,實亦不亞於對典籍本義的正確理解。

    本論文第一章為緒論,概述論文的問題意識,與前人的研究成果,並貞定研就的對象與範圍。第二章為宋代老學中形上之道的簡述與對義理性格的貞定,其中針對心性修養之所以可能的超越根據,做出理論程序上的說明。注疏家將儒道兩家的形上之道視為等同,並以此為基礎,試圖整合雙方的義理內容。依吾人對儒道兩家形上性格的體認,雙方雖同屬實踐進路,但各有其特質,似未能逕自混為一說,而宋人在注《老》時卻常對此有所滑轉,於是便可能產生兩種影響:一是減殺了所引儒典的道德形上義蘊,一是將道家的形上玄理強加了德性的內涵。當時學人既如此解《老》,其理論興趣顯然在於儒道的會通。第三章為宋代老中的心論,循著宋人援儒入《老》的詮解態度,依照理論程序,先從「心」的本體義開始觀察,再逐一檢視「心」的諸般現象義,得知其觀點,除了傳統的成心之義外,尚有認知與情欲可說,且有不少注疏者將儒家的天道、德性心灌注於《老子》中,從而使¬《老子》充滿了心性之學的風味。細觀之,有時他們是直接將《老子》中的「心」以《孟子》等儒典中的語句解釋,從而直接扭轉其理路,若成功,則老學的心知義將發生質變,其系統的獨立性被減殺,從而轉為儒家服務,以充實儒家的理論內容;若不成功,則往往反使儒典的涵義連帶地模糊起來。第四章為宋代老學的性論,概述了宋人解《老》時對「性」的觀察與運用,可知其言性時主要是與形上義理的性格相配合。如果注疏者在申述過程中的儒家性格較為顯著,則《老子》的理論便將被視為對儒家的輔助性解說,其系統的獨立性便有所動搖;反之,若論述過城中的道家形格顯為彰著,則他們所論的性理,將成為玄理意義下的進一步發展,如此一來,此「性」便非以宋代性理之學氛圍下之德性義為主,而是對自然主體的追溯與闡發。第五章談修養工夫,宋人解《老》時既然常將儒道雙方的形上性格與心性理論整合在一起,則工夫方面的結合實亦無可避免。除了治心與盡性之外,還喜好將「復命」與「至命」等同,進而透過為道與為學、致虛守靜、顯仁藏用諸說,鉅細靡遺地整合出甚能自圓其說的論述體系。第六章首先探索儒道會通的意義、定位、動力與方法,試圖從過去迄今在相關領域的研究心得中,整理出相應的研究態度。繼而羅列《論語》、《孟子》被宋注援引的的內容。第七章進行援引儒典的效力檢視,以宋人援引《中庸》入《老》的實例為證,從天道、人性、修養工夫等角度說明其引用概況,分析其援引焦點與理論興趣之所在,最後總合本論文的研究成果,討論此一援引方式在經典詮釋上的得失與展望。
    Under the influence of grounds on thought, Song commentaries are racing home Interpretations of Taoism is to open up new horizon. To then "I" commentaries for example, the quality and quantity are very impressive, and can profoundly reflect dialogue between Confucianism and Taoism in Song Dynasty and blend of academic fashion. If we can delve into the moral principles I learned the contents of the Song Dynasty, in addition to help make up part of the old studies, in order to construct a more complete history of the old school outside the dominant side effects of treatment can take this trend to the overall academic atmosphere of the Song force.

    In this paper, I learned to explore the Song of objects, since the original Code faced with the Song I commentaries based. And this way, we must focus on two issues: first, both for the commentaries, there is inevitably involve the validity of the comment. Second, if the old school Mind On paper lies at the core, it is bound to cut into the Song in the context of their school grounds on the observed old Horizon. In the era between the atmosphere and the personal qualities intertwined, classic interpretation of the state will be presented to show what kind? Adequacy became "Taoism will pass" ethos of proof? The importance of this issue, in fact, also less than a correct understanding of the original meaning of texts.

    The first chapter is an introduction awareness of the problem, an overview of the paper, with the results of previous studies, and Zhen given on the research object and scope. The second chapter is on the road in the form outlined Song Lao Chen and character set of moral principles, which may be the reason for the Mind accomplishment beyond according to instructions to make a theoretical procedures. Commentaries home will be on the road in the form of Confucianism and Taoism as equivalent, and on this basis, trying to integrate the contents of both moral principles. According to realistic three on Confucianism and Taoism body shape character recognition, although both belong to the same practical approach, but each has its qualities, it seems unable to mix for one that went, and Song in the note "old" Shique often this has the slip, so they may have two effects: First, cut the lead to kill the Confucian canon moral righteousness Yun-shaped, one on the Taoist Metaphysics shape imposed moral connotations. Scholars such a solution was both "old" and its theoretical interest clearly lies in Taoism will pass. The third chapter of the Song Dynasty in the heart of the old theory, follow the Song aid Confucianism into "old" Explanation of attitude, in accordance with the theoretical program, starting with the "heart" of the body began to observe righteousness, and then one by one to view all sorts of phenomena "heart" of the righteousness, that their views, in addition to the traditional meaning deliberately, there are cognitive and lust can be said, and there will be many commentaries Confucian Heaven, virtue heart perfusion in the "I", so that ¬ "I "Mind is full of flavor science. The meso-, and sometimes they are applied directly to "I" in the "heart" to "Mencius" and other statements that explain the Confucian canon, which directly reverse its principles, if successful, meaning the old school knew would qualitative change occurs, the independence of the system is reduced to kill, so turned Confucian services to enrich the content of the Confucian theory; if successful, are often anti-Confucian canon make meaning jointly and severally blurred. Mainly on the shape and character of moral principles cooperate fourth chapter of the Song Dynasty old school, an overview of the Song solution "old" when "sex" and the use of observation, we can see their words of time. If the commentaries are in the process of Confucian character representations are more significant, the "I" theory put is considered ancillary to the Confucian commentary, the independence of its system will be shaken; Conversely, if the city had discussed Taoist shape Georgia was as glaring, the theory of the grounds on which they will be the further development of Metaphysics sense, this way, this "sex" we would not have to moral righteousness Song of the school grounds on the atmosphere under the main, but the the retrospective nature of the main exposition. The fifth chapter about training effort, Song solution "old" since often when the two sides will shape the character and disposition of Taoism theory together, combining aspects of the real work will be inevitable. In addition to the heart and to the best of treatment, but also taste the "complex life" and "to life" equivalent, and thus for the Road and to learn through, causing false keep quiet, Xianren Tibet by Zhu said that a tremendous amount of very able to integrate justify discusses system. Chapter VI will pass first to explore the significance of Confucianism and Taoism, positioning, dynamic and methods, trying to date in the research from the past experience in related fields, sorting out appropriate research approach. Then list the contents of "The Analects of Confucius", "Mencius" has been cited in the Song note. Code of conduct invoking Chapter VII of the effectiveness of the Confucian view to Song citing "moderate" into the "old" examples as evidence, from Heaven, humanity, cultivation work perspectives explain the reference profile, focus and theoretical analysis of the quoted interest lies Finally, the aggregate results of this paper to discuss the pros and cons of this approach with the prospect of a quoted in the classical interpretation.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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