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    Title: 清康熙朝御製文獻之研究
    Other Titles: Research of Ching Dynasty document written by Kangxi
    Authors: 魏明政;Wei, Ming-Zheng
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國文學系博士班
    高柏園;Kao, Po-Yuan
    Keywords: 康熙皇帝;御製文獻;崇儒重道;文化統治;盛世文治;西歐科學;帝王意志;出版工藝;文獻整理;中華文化;Emperor Kangxi;Royal Documentation;respect scholars and value morality;Cultural rule;prosperity and cultural rule;Western Europe Science;Emperor's Willingness;publishing skills;documentation integration;Chinese Culture
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:55:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 「文治武功」是中國歷來衡量政局興衰之重要標準。康熙皇帝在位長達61年,先後智擒鰲拜、平定三藩、收復台灣、打敗俄皇、綏服蒙古、撫安西藏,「武功」盛極一時;且又重視學術、弘揚文化、編纂圖書、獎勵學者、促進中西文化交流,「文治」無人能比。此無論是「千古一帝」,亦或開創「康乾盛世」,康熙皇帝在「文治武功」的歷史評價上,顯然是毋庸置疑的。雖然,史論均盛嘆其文治武功,然而作為「文治」指標之「編纂圖書」上,其究竟具體之數量、內容為何?卻又語焉不詳,或莫衷一是,令人難以窺探康熙皇帝「編纂圖書」文治成就之全貌。

    據此,本文利用清朝正式官方文獻,如:《國朝宮史》、《大清會典事例》、《清朝文獻通考》等,具體彙整出康熙朝「御製文獻」共計67種,並清楚說明各部文獻之書名、卷數、編纂時間、編撰者、修纂過程、動機、目的、評價及版本等,試圖彌補歷來研究康熙皇帝「編纂圖書」文治成就之模糊地帶。

    此外,本文透過「文獻」與「哲學」之互動關係(以文獻提供內容,以哲學提供方向),先針對「文獻」本身之「資料」義,進行相關彙整、考證,清楚建構「底層建材」;其後,再根據「底層建材」進行文獻學之哲學義(前理解範疇、理解後詮釋)開展。此除可擴展清康熙朝御製文獻之研究範圍與廣度外,更可避免其唯考古化與繁瑣化之危機。

    本文以為,清康熙朝御製文獻哲學義之「前理解範疇」,主要建構在康熙皇帝「異族入主中原」之特殊身分及其「憤而自學」之性格,從而促成整體御製文獻之編纂動機:從第一步「崇儒重道」之文化選擇,欲淡化滿、漢文化差異,得到漢人認同;發展至第二步,以「文化統治」箝制文人學士思想,掌握民心、鞏固政權;進而演變成第三步,在武力征伐天下之過程中,自省將誤入岐途,淪於窮兵黷武,欲效法古代聖王,追求盛世文治。同時,並企圖引進「西歐科學」,凌駕漢學,從而建立異族君王之文化尊嚴。

    而在御製文獻哲學義之「理解後詮釋」部分,本文試圖從「文獻特色」與「文獻價值」二義進行析論。首先,就「文獻特色」而言:第一,在內容方面,無論從編纂之圖書選定、人員挑選、內容指示、康熙親身參與編纂或從其編纂態度上,均見「御製」二字,並非虛名,而具有真實之涵義。第二,在形式方面,康熙皇帝征調全國各地優秀之工匠,窮盡所能,費盡巧思,再加上自身之文化素養,及其對完美之堅持,從而印製出精美絕倫的劃時代精品,史稱「殿本」、「康版」,此對於清代整體之出版工藝,奠定下厚實基礎。日後,更對於「清內府刻書」,無論從內容或形式上,實具有「發凡起例」之影響。其次,就「文獻價值」而言:第一,康熙皇帝以「注釋」、「編纂」等方式,將中國古代豐富卻又散亂之文獻,重新進行整理,除賦予當代時空之特殊意義外,更方便士人學子檢索,提供正確文獻資料,成為其文獻整理之價值。第二,「御製文獻」繼承中華文化歷來傳統,且又融合康熙朝滿漢民族之文化內容,日後,更開拓出漢、滿、蒙、回、藏、苗、傜等多族共融與中西文明並進之新文化精神,將之視為清當代「中華文化」代表,應是無庸致疑之論點。吾人從其御製文獻之頒發、賞賜、翻刻及販售等過程中,除具見康熙皇帝為推廣中華文化之用心外,更可視為其文獻傳播之價值。
    “Civilized goverance and Martial achievements(文治武功)”is the important criteria to measure the rise and fall of the political situation in ancient China. Emperor Kangxi had reigned for 61 years, he captured Oubai(鰲拜), crackdowned the rebellion of three warlords, recovered Taiwan, defeated the Russian Tzar, conquered Mongolia, and appeased Tibet, his Martial achievements had reached the ceiling. In addition, he also valued academy, widespreaded culture, edited textbooks, promoted scholars, and faciliated the exchange of Sino-western culture, his Civilized goverance had also been unprecedented. It is obviously undoubted that the historical evaluation of Emperor Kangxi is unprecedented, no matter the comment of “ the greatest Emperor of history”or the commencement of “Kangxi-Chienlung Prosperity. In spite of this, however, “Textbook-edition”, as the indicator of “Civilized goverance”, is ambiguous. It’s concrete quantity and content is unclear, so that nobody can realize the whole picture of the “Textbook-edition”of Emperor Kangxi.

    Therefore, this thesis will use the official documents of Ching Dynasty, such as “ the Palace History”, “ the Code and Example of Ching Dynasty”, and “General documents’analysis of Ching Dynasty”, to integrate the 67 kinds royal documents of Kangxi Dynasty, and clearly explain the name, volume, editogn time, editor, editing process, motivation, purpose, evaluation and version of every document. And it also try to compensate the vague area of the research of “Textbook-edition”of Emperor Kangxi.

    Besides, this thesis will also focus on the “information meaning” of document itself, through the interaction relation of “Document” and “Philosophy”(to provide content via Document, and to provide direction via Philosophy), to proceed the integration and analysis, in order to clearly construct the “Bottom Building Material”. Afterwards, it will commence the philosophy meaning of Documentation by using the “Bottom Building Material”(Pre-realizing scope, Realizing explination). Thus it will broaden the research scope and width of royal documents of Kangxi Dynasty, and avoid the crisis of analysis and trifle.

    The “Pre-realizing scope” of royal documents of Kangxi Dynasty mainly base on the special position of “aliens rule China” of Emperor Kangxi and his character of “Self-learning”, and push the editing motivation of royal documents. From the first step, the cultural choice of “respect scholars and value morality” to reduce the cultural differences between the Manchurian and Han people, and gain the identity of Han people. To the second step, using “Cultural rule” to crackdown the thought of scholars, to seize people and to consolidate regime. Further to the third step, during the military conquering process, to avoid steping into the wrong direction of military paranoia, he wants to mimic the ancient Philosopher Kings to pursue the prosperity and cultural rule. Meanwhile, he also attempts to induce the “Western Europe Science” to surpass the Sinology, and establish the cultural dignity of alien Emperor.

    At the part of “Realizing explination” of the Philosophy meaning of Royal Documentation, this thesis attempts to proceed analysis through “Document Character” and “Document Value”. For the part of “Document Character”: First, for the content, no matter from the edition of choosing textbook, choice of staffs, instruction for content, the personal attendance of Emperor Kangxi and his editing manner, it is clear that the term of “Royal Document”, has the true meaning. Secondly, for the formality, Emperor Kangxi recruited the artists nationwide to do their best, to add his own cultural cultivation, and his insistence for perfectness, thus he print out the marvelous and unprecedented masterpieces. These masterpieces are called “Palace Version” or “Kangxi Version”, and they also set up the strong basis of the whole publishing skills of Ching Dynasty. Afterwards, no matter from content or formality, they also have the “deep and sampling”influence for the “Royal Version Textbook”. For the part of “Document Value”: First, by using the methods of “explanation” and “edition”, Emperor Kangxi re-clarified the abundent and scattered documents of the ancient China, to endow the special meaning of the contemporary era, to ease the checking of scholars, and provide the correct document information. This becomes the value of his documentation integration. Secondly, the “Royal Documentation” inherits the tradition of Chinese culture, conbimes the cultural contents of Machurian and Han people of Kangxi Dynasty, and explores the new cultural spirits of the conbinition of Han, Manchria, Mongolia, Muslims, Miaos and Yao people, and the co-existance of Sino-western Civilization. It is undoubted that the “Royal Documentation”is the representative of the contemparary “Chinese Culture”of Ching Dynasty. From the process of issuing, giving, re-printing and selling of the “Royal Documentation”, we can see the great efforts of Emperor Kangxi to promote the Chinese Culture, and we can also regard it as the value of document communications.
    Appears in Collections:[中國文學學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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