臺灣在日本統治以前全島還沒有完全進入國家編制裡，進入日本統治時期後由國家權力開始介入與制定山林政策，森林已經不再是國家權力無法管轄的地區，進入日治時期後日本殖民政府的統治權力慢慢開始進入所謂的番地，而番地其中一項重要的資源就是森林木材，臺灣的山林如何從無國家權力管轄到進入施行山林政策，是做為研究林業史必須了解的過程，而進入戰後國民政府統治所有山林開始重新編制，其中棲蘭山這塊林地在1959（民國48）年之後不屬於戰後林務局或是後來改制的林產管理局所管，而屬於當時退輔會轄下的橫貫公路森林開發處管轄，這是一個特殊的情況，這樣的特殊情況下臺灣橫貫公路森林開發處如何一邊安置一部分榮民一邊進行木材產銷的工作，是值得探究的課題，再進入1980年代末，國際自然環境觀念的變遷，台灣的第一波森林抗爭運動在1987年開始，主要在抗議「丹大林道」非法濫墾濫伐事件，第二波「為森林而走」運動，是1998年環保團體聯合發起的「全國搶救棲蘭檜木林」運動。加上政府在此時也因環境的變遷開始調整林業政策，退輔會在上面政策的轉變下開始進行規劃森林保育和發展觀光產業，並且如何因應搶救森林運動的抗議人士的訴求，這些都是想探究的焦點。 State control didn’t start to play a role in regulating mountain forests in Taiwan until the Japanese occupation of Taiwan (1895–1945). The Japanese Colonial Empire exerted gradual influence on the lands inhabited by indigenous peoples and mountain forests, one of their most valuable natural resources. This paper looks at the historical shift from the period of pre-Japanese rule of Taiwan when mountain forests were not under state control to the occupation period during which policies on mountain forests began to be formed and implemented. This paper also examines the post-colonial era when the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China (R.O.C.) took over the control of mountain forests and greatly changed the development of forestry in Taiwan. Chi-Lan Shan, or Chi-Lan Mountain Forest, is a unique case and of particular interest to this paper. Unlike the other mountain forests in Taiwan, Chi-Lan Shan was not regulated by the Forestry Bureau under the Council of Agriculture of the Executive Yuan, but by the Central Cross-island Highway Forest Development Agency of the Veterans Affairs Council, R.O.C. Established in October 1959, the Forest Development Agency was in charge of the placement of retired veterans from the R.O.C. military while having them develop natural resources along the Central Cross-island Highway. However, voices against the exploitation of mountain forests started to emerge due to increasing environmental awareness, such as the 1987 campaign against illegal logging in Danda Lindao, or Danda Forest Road and the Rescue Chi-Lan Shan Cypress Movement in 1998. Faced with such global awareness on environmental issues, the government decided to adopt and implement new forest policies, with the Veterans Affairs Council shifting its focus from logging and exploitation to conservation and eco-tourism.