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    Title: 應用傳訊賽局建構服務補救機制
    Other Titles: Applying signaling game to build a service recovery mechanism
    Authors: 葉書羽;Yeh, Shu-Yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學資訊管理學系碩士班
    解燕豪;Hsieh, Yen-Hao
    Keywords: 服務補救;傳訊賽局;人格特質;賽局理論;服務科學;service recovery;Signaling Game;personality traits;Game Theory;Service science
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:54:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在服務業蓬勃發展的世代下,服務提供商與顧客接觸的機會大幅上升,因此,服務提供商越來越重視其服務品質,並期盼顧客能夠從他們所提供的服務中獲得滿意的感受。服務擁有其四大特性:無形性、異質性、不可分割性以及易逝性,因服務的異質性,使得服務難以規格化及標準化,在多樣性及多變性的服務下,不同顧客對於服務的預期不盡相同,若服務提供商提供給顧客的服務未達到顧客原先的期待,將會使顧客感到不滿,因而發生服務失誤。在服務失誤發生後,服務提供商必須透過服務補救,來挽回顧客的滿意度、忠誠度、口碑,這也意味著服務提供商必須擬定一套完善的服務補救策略,如此才能保留住顧客,使顧客在服務失誤發生後,重新回來該服務提供商消費。
    傳統服務提供商在遇到服務失誤時,通常針對不同的失誤類型,給予一套標準的服務補救,但該補救並未考量服務提供商當下的資源狀況,使得服務提供商在資源不足時,仍需耗費相當資源予以補救,且服務提供商在對顧客進行服務補救時,必須考量眾多的因素予以補救,舉凡服務失誤的原因、服務失誤的嚴重程度以及顧客的情緒等,而不是ㄧ味的投入其資源進行服務補救,如此服務提供商才能長久經營。而本研究認為影響服務提供商給予顧客的服務補救成功與否,其關鍵要素之ㄧ為顧客的人格特質,因此本研究將透過了解不同人格之顧客在遭遇服務失誤時,可能會產生的行為及反應,進而幫助服務提供商在面對不同人格之顧客,並且考量其自身的資源狀況下,擬定其最佳的服務補救策略,使對服務提供商感到不滿的顧客重拾信心,讓服務提供商得以永續經營。
    本研究透過賽局理論中的傳訊賽局建構出一套服務補救機制,將顧客及服務提供商假設為賽局中的參賽者,並藉由探討過去與服務補救相關之重要文獻,以及與兩家飯店高階主管訪談之結果,設置服務提供商及顧客雙方的報酬參數,且本研究透過分析全球最大的旅遊網站之一:TripAdvisor旅遊網站,歸納出了四個服務失誤及服務補救的情境,包含分離均衡:外向性顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客不抱怨CENCN情境、分離均衡:外向性顧客不抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨分離均衡NCECN情境、擾和均衡:外向性顧客抱怨-神經質型顧客抱怨CECN情境以及擾和均衡:外向性顧客抱怨不-神經質型顧客不抱怨NCENCN情境,以此四個情境,進行本研究之模型推導與分析。在一連串的模型推導與分析後,本研究在以實際與兩家飯店高階主管訪談所獲得之資料結果,進行參數的假設,並以實際數值帶入本研究之傳訊賽局模型,而根據實際數值下的推導結果,可以幫助服務提供商在服務失誤發生後,同時考量服務提供商及顧客雙方面的立場,找出在四種情境下的均衡及均衡範圍,而該均衡即為服務提供商及顧客在服務失誤以及服務補救後,可以獲得最佳報酬的策略及行動組合。
    透過本研究之研究結果可發現:(1)不同人格類型的顧客除了因服務失誤對其造成的損害大小外,顧客在抱怨時所付的時間、心力以及該抱怨對其造成名聲、名譽的損害也會影響顧客抱怨的意願; (2)顧客人格的差異,對於服務提供商給予顧客的服務補救策略是有影響的,服務提供商不應只考慮該服務失誤的嚴重程度給予顧客服務補救; (3)在服務失誤發生後,服務提供商若在不同的情境下給予不同的服務補救方法,將可妥善應用其當下資源,提升資源使用的效率; (4)在服務失誤及服務補救中事件中,顧客與服務提供商雙方獲得的報酬會因其中一方的策略及行動而有所不同; (5)藉由應用傳訊賽局模型的概念,可將抱怨的顧客轉換為對服務提供商滿意的顧客。本研究有以下之學術貢獻:(1)本研究以創新的方式設計出了一套服務補救機制; (2)本研究提出一套能夠站在雙方面立場的服務補救機制;(3)透過本研究實際數值的推導結果,證明了顧客人格的差異確實會影響服務提供商的服務補救策略。且本研究有以下之實務貢獻:(1) 本研究之服務補救機制幫助服務提供商在進行服務補救時,其資源的運用更加效率化;(2)本研究之服務補救機制可幫助顧客在服務失誤後,獲得較佳的服務補救方法;(3)本研究之服務補救機制可減少服務補救失敗的可能性。最後,本研究有以下之研究限制:(1)本研究僅以五因素模型中的外向性及神經質型兩種人格做為本研究主要研究對象; (2)本研究在考量顧客及服務提供商報酬時僅各考慮5個參數; (3)本研究使用賽局理論中的傳訊賽局作為本研究的研究方法,但在進行模型推導前必須有些假設前提,且本研究也期望未來學者試以將其他賽局,同以應用到服務補救相關領域上,以幫助服務提供商在選定服務補救方法等決策行為時能有更多樣的決策方法,並期望未來學者可以以延伸性傳訊賽局做為研究的方向,舉凡將服務提供商可提供的實際補救的方法納入考量,讓賽局中的參賽者能有更多樣的策略選擇,並從中選出對自己最有利的策略及行動,以獲得最大的報酬。
    In the era of service economy, service providers easily interact with customers during service delivery. Owing to the heterogeneity of services, it is difficult for service providers to specify and standardize the service design and delivery processes. Hence, services could not meet customers’ needs and expectations which result in service failures and customer dissatisfaction. Traditionally, service providers have a standard service recovery process and do their best to remedy mistakes for customers when service providers encounter different kinds of service failures. However, service providers usually can’t carefully concern about the controlled levels of existing resources. In order to achieve high customer satisfaction, service providers always take a lot of effort to remedy service failures even though they are lack of sufficient resources. Meanwhile, service failures could be result from many causes including service quality, levels of service complexity and personality traits etc. Service providers have to take these critical factors into account for service recovery rather than only taking lots of resources. The most important factor is personality traits to influence the success of service recovery. Accordingly, this study aims to understand the customer responses and actions when customers encounter service failures that belong to different personality traits. This study builds a mechanism of service recovery to help service providers to make the optimal strategy by considering their controlled levels of existing resources to achieve the success of service recovery.
    This study attempts to build a mechanism of service recovery based on the signaling game theory including service providers and customers. This study designs the parameters of payoffs of the signaling game based mechanism by reviewing critical literatures and interviewing two senior hotel managers. In order to understand the actual service recovery situations, this study analyzes the customer feedback and past experiences of perceiving hotel services via the website of TripAdvisor. Based on the analysis, this study defines four scenarios of service recovery including separating equilibrium: extraversion customers with complaints─neuroticism customers without complaints, separating equilibrium: extraversion customers without complaints─neuroticism customers with complaints, pooling equilibrium: extraversion customers with complaints─neuroticism customers with complaints and extraversion customers without complaints─neuroticism customers without complaints. Hence, this study applies the four scenarios to carefully infer and build four signaling game models. The real data which is collected from interviews and literatures reviews can be inputted to the proposed models in order to evaluate the feasibility and the accuracy of the mechanism of service recovery. The equilibrium of the payoff for each model can be also explored. In other words, the mechanism is taken service providers and customers into account to find out the optimal strategies and actions.
    The research findings include 1) customers’ effort, time and reputation can influence their intention to complain about service failures 2) the service recovery strategies should be dynamically responded to different personality traits of customers 3) service providers have to employ suitable service recovery execution within four scenarios 4) the payoffs of service providers and customers could be diverse based on their strategies and actions 5) customers with complaints can be satisfied with the quality service recovery. Besides, the research contributions of this study are detailed as follows 1) this study tries to design the mechanism of service recovery in an innovative perspective 2) the mechanism of service recovery is considered two roles of service providers and customers 3) the practical analysis revels that different personality traits of customers enable service providers to select suitable service recovery strategies. The practical contributions of this study include 1) the mechanism of service recovery help service providers to effectively use resources to remedy service failures 2) the mechanism of service recovery help customers to acquire proper services to improve service failures 3) the mechanism of service recovery increase the success of service recovery. There are several research limitations including 1) this study only focuses on extraversion and neuroticism customers 2) this study applies five parameters to represent the payoffs of the mechanism of service recovery 3) this study defines several scenarios and assumptions to infer the signaling game models in order to clarify the research boundary. In the future, researchers can continuously adopt other models of game theory to the field of service recovery and design suitable service recovery strategies for service providers to remedy service failures. The applications of successful practical cases of service recovery should be also a research direction for the field of service science.
    Appears in Collections:[資訊管理學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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