Within the Taiwanese armed forces, the Military Police enjoy a considerable degree of autonomy. Reporting directly to the Ministry of National Defense, the Military Police are responsible for performing policing duties within the armed forces, assisting in the maintenance of public order, protecting the national capital, guarding important national defense facilities (including highly sensitive facilities), and supporting the army, navy and air force in their combat roles. In addition, in accordance with the provisions of the Statute Governing the Performance of Special Service by the National Security Bureau, the Military Police are also responsible for collecting information relating to national security, and for undertaking special missions. The present study examines the causes of job stress for female Military Police in the Taipei City region. In order to gain a fuller understanding of the linkages involved, the study uses in-depth interviews to explore, from the perspective of socialization into military life, whether there is a close relationship between the job stress experienced by female Military Police stationed in the Taipei City area and factors such as age, promotional prospects, family matters, etc., and to examine the ways in which female Military Police utilize interpersonal interaction, and whether rank and the related restrictions affect how they act out their personal identity. The study finds that, overall, women’s unique characteristics enable them to provide vital support for Military Police units; from the point of view of the Military Police, it is clearly valuable to have female personnel assigned to a unit. By comparison with the situation in society as a whole, while the increased workload experienced by the Military Police in recent years has led to an increase in job stress, and has reduced the amount of time that Military Police stationed in the Taipei area are able to spend with family and friends, nevertheless, working in the Military Police still constitutes a stable working environment for women. Government policy has created a situation where the policy measures, rules and safeguards applying to long-service, career military personnel do not fully meet personnel’s needs; however, women are generally more willing than men to put up with the status quo, and thus help to provide a stable, solid core within Military Police units. While women’s characteristic tenacity, and the ability to enjoy job and income security, ensure that female Military Police derive a reasonable level of satisfaction from their work, the fact that women tend on average to be physically weaker than men means that they often find themselves having to expend more time and effort than men to perform the same tasks and achieve the same results. The study’s recommendations are as follows: The relevant authorities should give priority to arranging proper professional skill enhancement and career planning for female Military Police. Traditional attitudes towards gender roles cause numerous problems for female personnel during training and in the exercise of their duties, which in turn can be an obstacle for female personnel’s career development. Due to the impact of the “glass ceiling” and the pressure to conform to conventional gender roles, female Military Police often choose to take on administrative roles which have regular working hours. When designing career paths for female Military Police or deciding to open up particular posts to women, the military authorities should consider more than just physiological differences between the sexes, the special characteristics of the particular unit or personal preferences; they should also undertake a comprehensive, in-depth revaluation of the positioning of gender roles within the military.