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    题名: 影響政策不擴散之因素 : 以垃圾費隨袋徵收政策為例
    其它题名: Factors affecting policy non-diffusion : a case of Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee policy
    作者: 王瓊雯;Wang, Chiung-Wen
    贡献者: 淡江大學公共行政學系公共政策碩士在職專班
    李仲彬;Lee, Chung-Ping
    关键词: 垃圾費;隨袋徵收;創新擴散;政策屬性認知;Garbage Fee;Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee;Diffusion of Innovations;Policy Attributes
    日期: 2014
    上传时间: 2015-05-04 09:53:53 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 我國一般廢棄物(以下簡稱垃圾)處理問題在民國80年代產業經濟蓬勃發展,人口消費力激增後嶄現,尤其都會型城市面臨垃圾處理無論是衛生掩埋或焚化爐等避鄰設施興建困境與環境保護爭議衝突,不得不思考垃圾源頭管制以徹底解決垃圾量逐年成長所帶來的處理壓力與環境負擔。垃圾清除處理費以用戶付費精神制定徵收法源,初期以自來水用水量為基準的徵收方式,因用水量與垃圾量連結性倍受質疑,又缺乏垃圾減量的誘因,在臺北市於民國89年首創實施垃圾費隨袋徵收政策後,垃圾減量效果顯著,民國91年修正一般廢棄物清除處理徵收辦法後,直轄市、縣(市)主管機關對垃圾費徵收得按用水量、按戶定額及按垃圾量計算三種方式選擇。
    本研究根據文獻資料,假定垃圾費隨袋徵收政策以量計價,依據臺北市實施後每日垃圾清運量減量率達80.34%,平均每人每日垃圾清運量從1.42公斤降至0.273公斤,資源回收也從1.82%提升至56.15%,成效顯著可稱有效達到垃圾減量之政策,探討影響隨袋徵收政策無法全面擴散至其他縣(市)之因素,以創新擴散理論及政策屬性認知研究發現,創新政策本身在擴散過程中扮演關鍵因素,而垃圾費隨袋徵收政策在相對優勢、相容性、複雜性、可試驗性與可觀察性的屬性認知中,相容性屬性相較其他四項屬性影響程度較大;其中與現存社會體系價值相容,受地方首長、民意代表支持性、體系成員財政差異性及客觀基礎條件影響;而與過往已被接受現存的觀念相容,由於民眾資訊不對稱未能實質了解隨袋徵收政策與隨自來水徵收方式之差異性具有相當影響,再者體系成員對於政策需求性也是重要影響因素之一。
    垃圾零廢棄、資源有效利用是目前各國積極努力的垃圾處理政策目標,在垃圾減量的實施策略中垃圾費隨袋徵收相較其他徵收方式,達到徵收公平、合理與正當性,經濟誘因設計提升政策執行上民眾配合意願;然該政策的全面推動,建議須能由下對民眾加深政策認知、提升環境教育概念,進而向上爭取改革創新;而業務機關對於垃圾處理成本檢討與財政影響,應建立短、中長期因應策略,尋求有效處理技術開創新局。環境資源有限,垃圾永續經營達零廢棄,資源循環有效利用,人類世代方能無窮無盡生存與發展。
    The problem of general waste (hereinafter referred to as garbage) management in Taiwan emerged after the booming consumer spending in the 1990s; especially metropolitan cities are facing the most serious situation since the NIMBY effect and environmental protection controversy conflict happened frequently in those areas. Consequently, they could not cope with stress and environmental burdens incurred from the year-by-year growth of waste.
    In the past few decades, Taiwan’s garbage collection methods were mostly based on tap water consumption. However, the waste amount and water consumption was unrelated and so people were lacking incentives for waste reduction. The law of Garbage Cleaning and Handling Fees were legislated in the spirit of user charge. Based on this law, Taipei City government initiated and implemented the Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee Policy in 2000, leading to significant garbage reduction. The data show that the reduction rate of daily garbage clearance reached 80.34% in Taipei, with an average per capita daily garbage clearance volume drop of 0.273kg from 1.42kg , and recycled rate increased from 1.82% to 56.15%. In light of these significant results, it can be seem a good policy achieving the effect of waste reduction. The main research question of this thesis is that why this policy did not diffused to other local governments even if the significant positive effect has been proved.
    Based on literature review of the theory of innovation diffusion as well as interviews of several local government officials, this study found that policy characteristics (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability) of innovation policy play important roles in the diffusion process. The compatibility of Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee Policy particularly affects a larger extent compared to the other four attributes; which is compatible with the value of the existing social system. In addition, the support from the local leaders and elected representatives and the compatibility with the concept having been accepted by the society, all affect the likelihood of acceptance of this policy. Finally, this research also found that people failed to realize the difference between the Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee Policy and the water-based policy due to asymmetric information, and the small needs of people in the area are all the reasons of policy non-diffusion.
    Garbage zero waste and efficient use of resources are policy objectives of all countries. Compared to other collection methods, the Per-Bag-Trash-Collection-Fee Policy is more likely to reach the extent of fair, reasonable and legitimate collections, and the economic incentives design would enhance the willingness of people to cooperate with policy. Based on the research findings, this study suggests governments, first of all, should deepen public awareness of this policy by improving environmental education. Secondly, should also review the waste disposal costs and financial impact to propose short, medium and long-term strategies for seeking effective policy for sustainable environment.
    显示于类别:[公共行政學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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