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    Title: 教育發展與所得不均 : 門檻迴歸模型分析
    Other Titles: Educational development and income inequality : a threshold regression analysis
    Authors: 蔡育衡;Tsai, Yu-Heng
    Contributors: 淡江大學經濟學系碩士班
    莊希豐;Chuang, Shi-Feng
    Keywords: 教育發展;所得不均;門檻回歸模型;Educational Development;Income inequality;Threshold regression
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:47:36 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本文主旨在探討教育發展是否能減緩所得不均成長的速度,因此,本文將分別利用三種不同的教育發展指標,25歲以上人口的平均受教年數、高等教育入學率以及教育支出占GDP的成長率,並且以門檻回歸模型分析,探討其與gini係數成長率的關係。

    本文一共使用了99個樣本國家,研究時間從1980年到2012年,以橫斷面資料型態來做探討,根據三個不同的教育發展指標,我們得到了三個不同之結論;以25歲以上人口的平均受教年數作為教育發展指標時,樣本國家將以門檻值為界分為兩塊,且教育發展程度與所得不均之關聯為正向關係,表示平均受教年數越高,所得不均的成長速度越快。其二,當使用高等教育入學率作為教育發展指標時,我們得到了雙門檻之效果,使樣本國家分為三塊,高所得、中低所得及低所得國家,除了低所得國家為反向關係外,其餘仍維持在正相相關,表示最低所得國家能夠透過增加高等入學率來減緩所得不均惡化的速度。第三種教育發展指標為教育支出占GDP的成長率,在此我們也得到了雙門檻之效果,一樣將樣本國家分為三塊,高所得、中低所得及低所得國家,所得到之結果為高所得與低所得國家其教育發展程度與所得不均之關聯為反向關係,唯獨中低所得國家為正向關係。

    根據本文研究之結果我們可以發現,雖然提升教育程度能夠改善一個國家人力資本的品質,進而使國家的經濟更加進步,不過卻可能相對造成所得不均的差異日漸擴大及嚴重,因此國家的教育政策,必須依據國家本身經濟狀況的不同,而給予不同的政策建議,那才能有效減緩所得分配不均的惡化。
    This empirical study uses the threshold model developed by Hansen (2000) to analyze whether education can slow down or speed the growth rate of income inequality. Three educational development indicators are employed: average years of total schooling over 25 years old, tertiary enrollment ratio and the growth rate of public expenditure on education as the percentage of GDP, to discuss their relationship with the growth rate of gini coefficient. The research is applied to the whole world, but we could only collect the 99 countries’ data available.

    GDP per capita is used as the threshold variable. First of all, When taking average years of total schooling over 25 years old as educational development indicator, we find that the world will be divided into two blocks, and the educational development effect on income inequality is positive, no matter in high or low income countries. Second, when using tertiary enrollment ratio as educational development indicator, the world is divided into three blocks: high-income, middle-income and low-income countries and we find that there is negative effect of education on income inequality only in the low-income countries. Third, when the growth rate of public expenditure on education as the percentage of GDP is used as the educational development indicator, similarly, the world is divided into three blocks, we find that there are negative effects in the high and low income countries but a positive effect in the middle-income countries.

    Based on the results, it suggests that if a government concerns about the income inequality problem, it should take the appropriate education policy, depending on its economic situation.
    Appears in Collections:[經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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