本文以加拿大的總體經濟資料為對象，分析勞動參與率以及失業率兩者的互動關係，藉以討論附加工作效果、怯志工作效果或失業不變假說等，何者存在於加拿大的勞動市場。整體而言，不論是以男性、女性或兩者加總的資料進行分析，實證指出勞動參與率以及失業率間具有長期均衡關係，且隨著失業率改變，勞動參與率會出現反向變化關係，這顯示怯志勞動效果存在於加拿大勞動市場。 This paper uses Canadian macroeconomic data as research object to analyze the interaction between the labor force participation rates and the unemployment rates. In order to discuss the phenomena of the added worker effect, the discouraged worker effect, and the unemployment invariance hypothesis that, which one exists in Canadian labor market.
On the whole, regardless of male, female, or both altogether, it has been empirically indicated that there is long-term equilibrium relationship between labor force participation and unemployment rate. Besides, with the changing of unemployment rate, labor force participation rate changes reversely. Therefore, discouraged worker effect exists in Canadian labor market.