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    Title: 女性身高對就業的影響 : 以美國健康與營養調查為例
    Other Titles: The impact of height on female employment : evidence from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Authors: 林巧倫;Lin, Ciao-Lun
    Contributors: 淡江大學產業經濟學系碩士班
    胡登淵
    Keywords: 身高;營養攝取;就業;職業選擇;半無母數模型;兩階段半無母數模型;Height;Nutrition intake;employment;Occupation choice;Seminonparametric Model;Two-stage seminonparametric model with sample selection
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:44:01 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 身高越高會帶給人專業、具有領導力的觀感。過去文獻多專注在研究身高對於已就業後的報酬之影響,鮮少針對身高對於就業之影響進行分析,而這類文獻大多也較關注男性。有鑒於此,本文在控制營養變數下,特別針對女性身高對就業的影響加以探討,並且進一步觀察身高是否會影響到職業的選擇。
    而有別於過去文獻,本文所使用的模型係假設就業分配較具彈性的半無母數模型(Seminonparametric model)以及兩階段半無母數模型(Two -stage seminonparametric model with sample selection)來進行估計。研究資料取自美國2005-2006與2007-2008年健康及營養調查 (NHANES),因考慮到身高、營養攝取的內生性,本文利用Control function approach 來處理內生的問題,以受訪者5~12歲喝牛奶的頻率所構成的虛擬變數以及Lewbel建議的工具變數為工具變數。
    結果顯示:女性的身高對就業整體而言並不存在顯著的影響,而營養攝取方面卡路里攝取對於就業沒有顯著的影響,蛋白質攝取對於就業則僅在10%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向;在已就業的前提下,本文進一步剖析身高對於進入各型職業的影響,發現身高越高的女性會較容易進入專業白領(身高一次項僅在10%顯著水準下呈顯著為正向,但平方項為負向但不顯著)及其他白領(身高一次項在1%顯著水準下呈顯著為正向,但平方項在5%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向),其邊際效果呈concave,特別是其他白領呈明確concave,表正向效果會隨著身高先上升再趨緩,而身高較矮的女性容易進入藍領職業(身高一次項在1%顯著水準下呈顯著為負向,平方項也在1%顯著水準下呈顯著但為正向),其邊際效果呈convex,表負向效果會隨著身高先加遽再趨緩。以上的結果可能部分肇因於職業是否容易受外表影響。在營養攝取方面,蛋白質攝取越多越容易進入專業白領,表示飲食品質越好對於專業白領是有幫助的,而對於需要體力的藍領,卡路里攝取越多則越有益,然而蛋白質與卡路里皆對進入其他白領無顯著影響。
    Tall people are more likely to be perceived as having professional status and leadership than shorter ones. Most existing studies explore height affecting wage but provide less discussion on the relation between height and employment. Pervious work on the height premium has largely focused on males. This study, hence, examines the impact of height on female employment and occupational choice after controlling for nutrient intakes.
    Unlike previous literature, this study uses models with a flexible distribution assumption. They are seminonparametric model and two-stage seminonparametric model with sample selection respectively. It analyzes female data that come from the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). To take the potential endogeneity of height and nutrient intakes into account, this paper uses a dummy variable reflecting “ the frequency of drinking milk on 5~12 years old” and the instrumental variables proposed by Lewbel as our instrumental variables. It then uses Control function approach.
    The results indicate height has no significant effect on overall female employment. The calories intakes have no significant effect on female employment either. The estimate of coefficient of protein intakes is negative but is only significant at ten-percent level. Taller women are more likely to enter white-collar professional occupation and white-collar other occupation, while the marginal effects appear to be concave, especially for white-collar other occupation. Shorter women are more likely to enter blue-collar occupation, while the marginal effects appear to be convex. With respect to nutrient intakes, calories intakes raise the possibility of entering blue-collar while protein intakes raise the possibility of entering white-collar professional occupation. These results may reflect that diet quality can enhance productivity in occupation needing intelligence and calories can enhance productivity in occupation needing strength. Neither of the nutrient intakes has significant effect on the possibility of entering white-collar other occupation.
    Appears in Collections:[產業經濟學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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