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    Title: 以溫特式建構主義分析法屬非洲之歷史與發展
    Other Titles: An analysis of the history and development of the Françafrique : from the perspective of Alexander Wendt's constructivism
    Authors: 姚睿;Yao, Jui
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    卓忠宏
    Keywords: 建構主義;殖民主義;法屬非洲;法國非洲政策;Constructivism;Neocolonialism;Francafrique;French African Policy
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:18:42 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 具實證主義精神之傳統國際理論未能準確預測冷戰結束,蘇聯崩解,引發國際關係理論的第三次大辯論,學者亦開始思考更具解釋力的國際關係理論。建構主義自1980年代後逐漸興起,該主義強調國際體系非客觀存在,主張行為者與國際體系為相互建構而成,因此能夠對國際關係中體系的轉變提出有力解釋,迅速躍上國際關係主流理論。在此之中,又以亞歷山大溫特(Alexander Wendt)教授基於科學實存論而提出之建構主義最受矚目。
    而「法屬非洲」(La Francafrique)是一種歷經半世紀,涵蓋法國與非洲法語區國家,影響遍及政治、軍事、經濟、文化層面,至今仍持續發展的區域國際體系。本文欲以溫特式建構主義的角度,探討此區域體系內部之文化特徵及轉變歷程,為法非關係之歷史與未來提供不同於傳統國際關係的觀察。回顧法國與非洲國家的往來歷程,其行為者在結構中的角色及分工共可區分為二大類型。第一種類型始於1960年代,在此類別中,法屬非洲體系以法國為區域性的霸權國家,雙方發展特殊關係,而非洲國家無論是在政治、經濟、或軍事上皆以法國為首,並與法國維持緊密聯繫;第二種類型則於1980年代末期伊始,此時法國不再是霸權國家,雙方的特殊關係轉型為制度化之外交關係,而非洲國家無論在政治、經濟、或軍事上則都歷經了去法國化的過程。兩種各自不同的結構,反映出不同時期中結構內行為者追求國家利益的過程,其結果更對法國與非洲國家皆造成相當程度的影響。
    然而論者不免好奇,為什麼法屬非洲在數十年間會有如此巨大的轉變,其又為什麼要放棄非洲當地經營長達近半世紀的特殊外交關係?是維持此種關係的成本太大?亦或是特殊關係帶給法國的國家利益不再?又是何種原因導致了長達數十年的關係生變?此即是本篇論文所欲探討的重點。總體而言,本論文希望能達成下列三點研究目的:
    1. 探討「法屬非洲」此一區域性國際體系的發展歷程,並分析體系中「單極式文化」與「多邊式文化」二種文化特徵。
    2. 以建構主義論證行為者建構「單極式文化」與「多邊式文化」的背後動機,及其轉變成因。
    3. 分析「法屬非洲」的未來發展,並預測法國與非洲國家當前的互動模式將對未來法非關係有何影響。
    The social constructivism introduced by Alexander Wendt primarily seeks to demonstrate how core aspects of international relations are, contrary to the assumptions of Neorealism and Neoliberalism, socially constructed, that is, they are given their form by ongoing processes of social practice and interaction. Constructivism, particularly in the formative work of Wendt, challenges the neorealism by showing that the causal powers attributed to ''Structure'' by Neorealists are in fact not ''given'', but rest on the way in which Structure is constructed by social practice, which implies that the structure and agents are mutually constitutes. Alexander Wendt calls two increasingly accepted basic tenets of Constructivism "that the structures of human association are determined primarily by shared ideas rather than material forces, and that the identities and interests of purposive actors are constructed by these shared ideas rather than given by nature"

    The subject of this thesis, the Francafrique, is a term that refers to France''s relationship with Africa. This description is sometimes used to denounce the allegedly "neocolonial" relationship France has with its African former colonies. The Francafrique also describes the sum-up of French African policy during cold war times, which was motivated by three France’s economic, diplomatic and political geographical strategic concerns. The Franco-African relation has changed a great deal after the end of the cold war, such transformation can be observed in various ways, either in French’s African policy or in the establishment of relative international institutions.

    The primary objective of this thesis is to argue that the Francafrique, as a regional structure, and its agents, namely states, are mutually constructed by shared Interests, Identities and norms defined in the social constructivism. Secondly, I will try to clarify and distinguish the two different cultural forms that shape this regional structure, namely the “Unilateral cultural” and the “multilateral cultural”. Third, I will try to analyze, in using the logic of social constructivism, the future development of the Franco-African relations.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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