移民政策一直以來都是屬於歐盟會員國的主權，然而歐洲統合的深化，並且在歐盟內建立共同市場，而透過歐盟層級來主導，以共同維護歐盟內部安全。歐盟關注移民議題主要原因共有三點，第一，由於歐盟出生率自60年代開始往下滑，人口結構開始改變；第二，高技術人員之不足；最後，第五次擴大的影響與非法移民問題。而德國在歐盟內具有政治與經濟地位，移民人數又為歐盟內最多之國家，但人口成長卻呈現負成長之現象，因此做為探討之對象。本論文以政策研究法與推拉理論作為主要架構，並分為四部分，首先探討歐盟需要移民之原因；第二，論述歐盟移民政策、合法移民之法律規範與防範非法移民之措施；第三，探究德國移民政策之內容；最後評估移民政策與歐盟藍卡之成效，以及防範非法移民之效果。 The sovereignty of drawing up immigration policy belongs to Member states of the European Union, however the process of European integration and the forming of common market propels the EU to be a leading role to preserve internal security within its boundary. There are three reasons that the EU focuses on the migration issue, the first reason is that sine 1960s the birth rate had begun sliding down, the demographic structure has been changed; the second reason is the deficiency of the high-qualified workforces; and another reason is the impact of the fifth enlargement of the EU and the problem of irregular migration.
This thesis takes Germany for case study because Germany possesses the major economic and political power, and the most immigrant population in the EU while their birth rate is the lowest among EU countries and their natural population growth started to shrink since 1990s.
Based on policy analysis and Push And Pull Theory, this dissertation is divided into four parts. The first part discusses the reasons why the EU needs immigrant population. The second and third parts include the process of the EU’s legal procedures to immigrants, measures against illegal immigration, and German immigration policy. The last part estimates the effects of the EU and Germany applying the immigration policy, the impression of EU blue card, and the outcome after controlling illegal immigration.