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    Title: 先秦戰略思想的研究
    Other Titles: On strategic thoughts of Pre-Qin
    Authors: 羅慶生;Lo, Ching-Sheng
    Contributors: 淡江大學國際事務與戰略研究所博士班
    施正權;Shih, Cheng-chuan
    Keywords: 戰略思想;先秦;後實證主義;管子學派;孔子學派;商君學派;孟子學派;荀子荀派;老子學派;Strategic Thought;Pre-Qin;post-positivism;Guanzi school;Confucius school;Shangyang school;Mengzi school;Xunzi schoo;Laozi school
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:18:05 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本研究探討先秦的戰略思想,以有別於傳統國學以及當代文、史、哲等人文學科的研究途徑,採用社會科學的國際關係與戰略研究理論進行研究,探討先秦時代的戰略思想家們,在面對戰略行為體間高度競爭時,是如何智慧的謀求生存與發展。
    本研究認為,先秦的戰略思想是動態演變的,不宜視為同個時空環境的產物去理解,因而採用典範與典範變遷的概念描繪此過程。而「思想」則是人類意識的主觀建構物,有特定的文化鑲嵌與來自社會建構的潛在假定,因而本研究站在後實證主義(post-positivism)的研究立場,運用理論反思(theoretical reflexivity)途徑,透過詮釋法與文獻分析法,除整理各學派理論內涵外,還探究其思想形成背後的政治、社會與文化脈絡,釐清各戰略思想典範的關聯性。
    本研究認為,先秦體系完整且具影響性的戰略思想學派主要有管子學派、孔子學派、商君學派、孟子學派、荀子學派與老子學派六家;至於墨子與莊子學派,則因其沒有戰略主體論述,思想家無意為特定戰略行為體服務,因而不能列為戰略思想。這六家主要學派因對戰略工具偏好的不同,可區分為「務實主義/理念主義」兩大區塊。而就典範與典範的變遷而論,管子學派為先秦第一個體系完整而具典範意義的戰略思想學派;相較周初原始的戰略思想,其戰略主體從周王室轉變為殖民邦,可視為先秦戰略思想的典範轉移;在工具論上則因強調國富兵彊,但也重視理念工具的操作,故屬於相對務實主義。管子學派在春秋時期曾獨領風騷長達一個半世紀之久,而後才遭到孔子學派的挑戰。孔子學派重視禮、仁等理念工具,開創了先秦戰略思想典範中的理念主義,但同時強調足食、足兵,則使其具有相對理念主義的屬性。至於戰國前期幾乎同時出現的商君學派與孟子學派,則屬於絕對務實主義與絕對理念主義。雖然她們所偏好實質或理念工具的差異性極大,但極端排斥另一項戰略工具的特色則完全一樣。商鞅與孟軻都有主政經驗,因而她們的理論都經過實踐檢驗。她們實踐的結果雖將實質或理念工具的功能發揮到極致,但也暴露出單一工具的缺失;戰國後期出現的荀子與老子學派因而都採折衷路線,主張同時操作實質工具或理念工具,不排斥另一項。不過荀子學派是整合傳統的論述,其理論主張極為具體;老子學派則為超越,其高度抽象的工具論,將戰略思想的發展提升到哲學境界。
    This research applied the methods of social science, instead of the traditional approaches of humanities such as literature, philosophy, and history, to explore the strategic thoughts of Pre-Qin to understand how those strategic thinkers sought for survival and development in the midst of highly competitive surroundings in that era.
    This study assumed that the strategic thoughts of Pre-Qin were changing and evolving, and should not be considered as the products of the same time and space circumstances. Therefore, this study utilized the concepts of paradigm and paradigm shift to depict the changing process. Because “thought” was subjective constructed by human consciousness, there were specific infused cultural elements and underlying social constructed assumptions. Taking a positivist stance in this research would have its limitations. Consequently, a post-positivist research was conducted by utilizing theoretical reflectivity through interpretation and literature analysis. While studying the theories of strategic thoughts from various schools, this research explored the political, social, and cultural backgrounds of the formation of various schools to clarify the relevance of those paradigms of strategic thoughts, by applying hermeneutic circle principles as well as experiential and logical judgments.
    This study found that the schools of strategic thought of Pre-Qin included Guanzi school, Confucius school, Shangyang school, Mengzi school,
    Xunzi school, and Laozi school. Mozi and Zhuangzi did not expound on strategic subjectivity and objectivity, therefore, they were not considered as strategic thinkers. The main difference among those schools was the strategic choice: some schools preferred realistic means while others preferred idealistic approaches. This study considered their strategic choice varied within a continuum and utilized the spectrum between “realism and idealism” as an analytical tool to differentiate those schools as well as to determine their relevance.
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute of International Affairs And Strategic Studies] Thesis

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