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    題名: 日本修憲國民投票法之研究
    其他題名: Research on the national referendum act for the amendment of the Japanese constitution
    作者: 廖珮妏;Liao, Pei-Wen
    貢獻者: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士班
    許慶雄
    關鍵詞: 日本國民投票法;日本修憲;日本國憲法第96條;Amendment of the Japanese Constitution;Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution;National Referendum Act;National Referendum Law;日本憲法改正;日本国民投票法;日本国憲法第96条
    日期: 2014
    上傳時間: 2015-05-04 09:15:54 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 日本國憲法第96條,是於日本國憲法中所規定的修憲條款。眾所周知,日本國憲法自1947年5月3日施行以來,至今年(2014年)為止的67年間,一直皆無修改更動過。許多日本當今政客皆呼籲,應依憲法第96條之規定,進行日本國憲法的修訂,使日本可開始制定修憲程序外,更可藉由進行修憲國民投票制度,達到落實修改爭議性的憲法條款(例如憲法第九條),使日本邁向真正的正常國家。

    經過日本國會議員多年的努力,與面臨社會大眾對於是否該制定修憲相關程序的輿論及評價後,終於向國會提出日本修憲的相關法律程序法案,最後經參議院表決通過後,於2007年5月14日正式公布「日本修憲國民投票法」。日本終於決定依據憲法第96條規定,將修憲國民投票程序邁向具體法制化。

    日本國民投票法的實際操作面上,實為是一大難題。因依據日本國憲法第96條規定,修憲必須經過三項程序:「(1)須先由國會參眾各議院議員總額的三分之二以上贊成後而向國會提案,國會經審議後始得向國民發議。(2)被提出之修憲案經由國民承認後,國會始得以舉辦國民投票。且選舉投票之結果,應以過半數的贊成為之必要。(3)憲法修正經由上述通過後,天皇得以國民之名義公布並施行」。因此可知,關於憲法第96條的修憲原則,基本上是涵蓋於兩大方面的意義:其一,關於憲法修正修憲原案的內容提出並向國會發議之相關程序論點。其二,關於國民投票其本身選舉制度面上的設計之相關論點。

    整體而言,「日本修憲國民投票法」是一項巨大工程的全民運動,除須經由國會議員的三分之二以上贊成的高門檻規定之外,最終的決定權仍掌握在國民的手中。因此於本論文中,特別鎖定於安倍晉三首相第一任內閣任職期間內,相關憲法修正國民投票之研究,將從日本國民投票法與修憲意涵,日本國民投票法的制定過程,乃至整個國民投票選舉活動結束其後續相關結果等探討,以求全盤了解日本憲法修正國民投票之整體概況。
    Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the National Constitution of Japan specifying the process for making amendments. After WWII, the Constitution of Japan has remained unchanged since taking effect on May 3, 1947. Until today, many politicians are not only calling for a revision of Article 96 so that they can begin revising other, more central Articles (for example, like Article 9, which is the ultimate aim of the Liberal Democratic Party), but also opening the door through which Japan can step as a “normal country” into the future.

    It is the first time the Lower House Commission on the Constitution has weighed changes to Article 96 since its inception in 2007. The LDP argues the two-thirds majority required in both chambers of the Diet to launch a national referendum, as called for by Article 96, has hampered revision since its promulgation in 1946. In the referendum, only a simple majority is needed to amend the Constitution in the current system. While some parties agree the Constitution should be revised from time to time to reflect societal changes, the Democratic Party of Japan criticized the LDP for focusing on the procedural steps for revision without considering what shape a new Constitution would ultimately take.

    Article 96 reads in English (the original language of composition) as follows:
    Article 96. Amendments to this Constitution shall be initiated by the Diet, through a concurring vote of two-thirds or more of all members of each House and shall thereupon be submitted to the people for ratification, which shall require the affirmative vote of a majority of all votes cast thereon, at a special referendum or at such election as the Diet shall specify. Amendments when so ratified shall immediately be promulgated by the Emperor in the name off the people, as an integral part of this Constitution.

    Japan has never held a national referendum on energy policy or any other specific issue. Due to these reasons above all, in this essay, what the author is trying to generally concern about is the enactment of the National Referendum Law for the Amendment of the Japanese Constitution.
    顯示於類別:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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