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    Title: 日本與台灣農業環境政策之比較研究
    Other Titles: A comparative study of agri-environmental policies between Japan and Taiwan
    Authors: 廖憶華;Liao, Yi-Hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學亞洲研究所碩士在職專班
    任耀庭
    Keywords: 農業環境政策;永續發展;農業多功能性;外部性;環境直接給付;Agri-environmental Policy;sustainable development;Multifunctionality of agriculture;externality;Agri-environmental Payments;持続可能な発展;農業の多面的機能;環境農業直接支払い
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-04 09:15:40 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   農業是重要的民生基礎產業,農業發展攸關國家安全與社會穩定,因此,如何確保農業得以永續經營,已成為現今各國農業政策制定者所必須面對的重要課題。
      從外部性理論來看,農業生產的外部效益包括:資源與環境保育、提供文化與教育資源、國土保安與水土保持、水源涵養、淨化空氣、保育野生動植物、糧食安全、綠色景觀、排泄物利用等,即農業多功能性。外部成本則包括:肥料與農藥污染、土壤流失、排泄物污染、地層下陷等。自1992年「地球高峰會」訂定了多項關鍵性的國際環境協定之後,經濟發展必須與環境保育取得平衡已成為全球共識,而農業部門當然也不能例外,農業環境境政策的制定因此變得更加重要。
      我國屬於海島型國家,地狹人稠,不論是地理環境、文化背景、農業條件,甚至是農業所面臨的困境與挑戰,都與日本頗為相似,因此,本研究藉由探討日本農業環境政策的發展與改革,從中整理出台灣在推動相關措施時可為借鏡之處。由日本農業環境政策的發展歷程來看,除了有健全的法制基礎以確保相關政策的推動具有延續性及長期性之外,主要是以環境直接給付的方式來鼓勵農民減低造成環境負擔的農業生產行為。日本代表性的農業環境政策包括:「環境保全型農業」、「中山間地區等直接給付制度」、「農地、水源、環境保全提升對策」等。反觀台灣在相關措施的推展上較無系統,尤其環境直接給付在各先進國家已被視為有助於發揮農業生產外部效益的重要工具,但在台灣卻未見有擴大推廣的具體措施。
      因此,本研究提出對台灣農業環境政策的建議,包括1.儘快促成農業基本法立法,2.加速農地資源調查與農業基本統計資料之蒐集與建立,3.有機農業的推動應增加環境保育相關支援措施,4.休耕政策應以環保為本,加強環境補貼,5.鄉村發展政策應著重於農村及農業產業文化特色的深植、農村價值系統的維護,6.以經濟性誘因為基礎鼓勵農民減用化肥與農藥,並落實農藥殘留檢測與管理。
    Agriculture is an important industry of the people’s livelihood. Agricultural development is crucial for national security and social stability. Therefore, how to ensure the sustainable development of agriculture has become an increasingly important topic in the agricultural policy.
    From the viewpoint of an externality, the positive external effects of agricultural production, such as preservation of the natural environment, transmitting culture, land conservation, fostering of water resource, biodiversity conservation, safety of food security, etc., also named as Multifunctionality of agriculture. Negative externalities from agricultural production, such as drinking water contamination from pesticides and fertilizers, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, etc. Since the 1992 Earth Summit, the link between environmental concerns and economic development has become an international issue. Therefore, Agri-environmental policies have also become increasingly important in the recent years.
    The agricultural conditions in Taiwan are similar to Japan. This paper is to analyze Agri-environmental policy in Japan, and learn from the experience of Japan to improve Taiwan’s policy. The representative measures of Agri-environmental policy in Japan, including ”Environment-friendly arming”, “Direct payment system in hilly and mountainous areas”, “Measures to conserve and improve land, water and environment”, and attach great importance to agri-environmental payment to encourage farmers to try to reduce agricultural pollution.
    By Analyzing Japan’s agri-environmental policies, study suggestions for Taiwan: 1. As soon as possible to promote the Agricultural Basic Law, 2. To accelerate the establishment of information on agricultural resources, 3. The way to increase the promotion of the organic agriculture should increase the supporting measures related to environmental conservation, 4. The land retirement program should be based on environmental conservation, 5. The rural development policy should focus on protecting agricultural industry and value system in rural, 6. Economic incentives encourage farmers to reduce the use of pesticide and fertilizer, and put into effect management of pesticide residues.
    Appears in Collections:[亞洲研究所] 學位論文

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