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    題名: 從美國印地安保留區看印地安原住民族的過去現在與未來
    其他題名: Past, present and future of American Indians on Indian reservations in U.S.A.
    作者: 劉興民;Liu, Hsing-Min
    貢獻者: 淡江大學美洲研究所碩士班
    紀舜傑;Ji, Shun-Jie
    關鍵詞: 印地安人;美洲原住民;印地安保留區;自治;自決;同化;部落政府;紅人的力量;印地安事務局;Indian;American natives;Indian reservations;Self-government;Self-determination;Assimilation;Tribal government;Red Power;BIA
    日期: 2014
    上傳時間: 2015-05-04 09:15:34 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 回顧歷史,當十六世紀當歐洲人陸續來到新大陸,也就是南北美洲時,白人與印地安原住民之間的衝突從未停歇。白人為了奪取土地,不知有多少印地安原住民部落遭到奴役或殺害,他們被迫逃離家園,就連原本的生活方式、宗教信仰、文化制度也幾乎被摧殘殆盡,即便到了美國建國初期,雙方的衝突還是沒能有效的解決,於是保留區的設置遂成了解決白人與印地安原住民族間衝突的一帖藥方,不論從開國元勳華盛頓到歷任總統,美國政府對印地安原住民的安撫在政策上並沒有太大的差異,保留區的設置除了讓印地安原住民各民族保有一塊棲息地外,也期望保留區的自治(Self-government)能讓印地安原住民文化得以保留與傳承,然而時至今日原本立意良善的政策(對白人來說),卻產生了許多的問題,保留區的族人大多仍過著貧窮的生活,留不住年輕人,他們被迫離開保留區出外謀生,而在所謂的文化傳承上更令人存在著許多疑問,眼看著這些原本與大自然共生的溫善民族就快要漸漸被主流文化給吞噬了,保留區的政策難道真的走到一個末路了嗎?
    本論文的首章為緒論。闡述本論文的研究動機、研究問題與目的、研究方法及整個研究架構。
    第二章為「美國印地安原住民與印地安保留區設立的歷史沿革」。除了簡述印地安原住民自「新大陸時代」以降,所遭受到的欺凌、屠殺、驅趕、掠奪等不平等的待遇外,聯邦政府成立之後,對印地安原住民的安置或同化政策,到保留區設立的原委,到後續的發展與印地安原住民生活的概況,在本章做了詳實地闡述。
    第三章為「美國印地安保留區自治與印地安原住民文化傳承」。二次大戰後,許多退役的印地安原住民青年回到保留區,社會地位的提升,公民意識的抬頭,讓保留區的領袖們更勇於追求保留區自治的決心,人權運動在各州如火如荼的開展,也間接促使了保留區各項自治制度的產生。除了政治上的意義之外,保留區母語教育與文化保存更是實質上保留印地安文化的具體行動。然而,保留區的經濟活動面臨的困難,與其所衍生出的社會問題,使得保留區的制度遭遇莫大的挑戰。
    第四章為「美國印地安保留區之未來展望」。保留區外的印地安原住民散居在各州,為了討生活,他們離鄉背井來到大城市,在以白人為主流的社會裡,他們是弱勢中的弱勢,面對祖先與白人祖先對立的傷痛歷史,他們對自我的認同有者極大的矛盾,為了追求「美國夢」,他們強迫自己過著白人的生活,然而原本應該在大草原上奔馳的他們,又是何等的失落。在保留區內,青壯年人口嚴重的流失,文化傳承也出現了斷層,地方自治好像只是個空架子,酗酒自殺犯罪等等社會問題層出不窮,眼看保留區制度似乎已經快要分崩離析。印地安原住民的未來究竟該何去何從?值得我們好好研究與深入的探討。
    第五章則是結論。天無絕人之路,只要努力,一定會有收穫。雖然保留區制度存在著許多困難的議題等待解決,但保留區的設立仍有其必要與正面的價值與意義。印地安文化的保存絕不是單靠博物館或賣手工藝品店就能維持下去,唯有印地安民族和非印地安人共同來努力,這珍貴的文化與民族才不會淹沒在時代的洪流裡。
    Reviewing history, the conflicts between Whites and Indian have never stopped since Europeans came to Americas in 16th century. There were many Indian tribes being slaved or massacred by Whites in order to seize their lands. They were forced to leave their homelands, and their ways of lifestyle, religions, cultures almost were destroyed. The conflicts in between were not solved even at the beginning period of USA built. The reservation system became a solution of easing the conflicts between Whites and Indians. However, there were no big differences on the federal Indian policies for appeasement from founding father, President Washington to the following successors. The purpose of Indian reservation policy not only preserves Indian tribes a place to live but also hope to achieve tribal self-government so their culture could be passed down. Nowadays the policy considered “beneficial” to Indians (from Whites’ point of view) results a lot of problems. The Indians on reservations live in a poor situation, and a lot of youngers have to leave reservation to big cities. Many doubts remain in the preservation of Indian cultures. It seems the peaceful people who living in a harmony with nature are drowning in the mainstream. Is it an end for Indian reservations?
    First chapter includes motivation, questions, purposes, method, and structure of my research. Second chapter reviews American history of Indians and Indian reservation. Indians were treated unfairly by European colonists such as massacre, banishment and robbery. The allotment and assimilation were later policies after US federal government settled. Third chapter introduces the evolution history of Indian self-government and Indian culture preservation. Indian social movement and Red Power accelerate the making of tribal self-government. Native language and culture preservation are also important actions on Indian reservations. Fourth chapter indicates several serious problems on Indian reservations, such as poverty, unemployment, etc. Half of Indian populations immigrated to big cities, losing their identity of being an Indian and wandering between traditional and modern society. The system of reservation is collapsing and the future of Indians is obscure. Fifth chapter brings the conclusion of my research. Although many problems waiting to be solved on reservations, the true value and meaning need to work on together by Indians and non-Indians in the future.
    顯示於類別:[美洲研究所] 學位論文

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