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    Title: 應用PLS與DANP改善機場服務品質缺口之研究 : 以桃園機場為例
    Other Titles: Applying PLS and DANP to improve airport service quality gaps : a case of Taoyuan Airport
    Authors: 吳怡萱;Wu, Yi-Hsuan
    Contributors: 淡江大學運輸管理學系碩士班
    許超澤;Hsu, Chao-Che
    Keywords: 服務品質缺口;偏最小平方法;重要度─滿意度分析法;Service Quality Gap;PLS;IPA;DANP
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-01 16:11:41 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 傳統上,機場服務品質研究多以消費者角度進行探討,鮮少針對管理者與消費者之間的認知差異進行研究。故本研究以PZB服務品質缺口為基礎,發放一般旅客問卷及專家問卷,探索旅客與機場管理者之間的服務品質認知差距,以有效提升機場整體服務滿意度。
    首先,針對旅客發放一般問卷,進行偏最小平方法 (Partial Least Squares, PLS)與重要度─滿意度分析法 (Importance- Performance Analysis, IPA) 分析;過往採用量化統計問卷的方式,無法得知旅客滿意度對機場各服務項目的關聯性及影響關係,造成機場管理單位無法有效深入利用分析結果。運用PLS可建構以旅客為觀點的服務品質滿意度模型,找出旅客認為權重較大的服務構面及各個服務準則與其構面的關聯程度大小,可作為旅客服務品質的改善順序之用。而IPA分析可將旅客知覺的機場滿意度與重要度,標繪至二維網絡象限圖中,呈現出旅客認為須優先改善之服務準則項目。其次,為瞭解機場經營者 (機場公司) 及機場管理者 (民航局) 對於機場服務品質的認知,發放以決策實驗室分析法為基礎之網路程序分析法 (DEMATEL─based ANP, DANP) 專家問卷,發掘準則間的相互影響關聯性及因果關係。最後再結合受測者的訪談資料與綜合量化訪談結果,相互比較旅客、機場公司人員及民航局主管間服務品質認知差異,找出造成服務品質缺口的原因。
    研究結果顯示,機場經營及管理單位所提供之機場服務與旅客所知覺之服務品質滿意度有所差異。旅客認為影響程度較大且急需立即改善的機場服務項目為「無障礙空間的設置」、「商店/餐飲價格」及「商店/餐飲之選擇性」。機場人員與民航局主管一致認為「航廈動線規劃」為影響機場服務品質的關鍵服務準則:特別是非管制區服務構面的「運輸服務及設施」的權重值最高,對整體機場服務品質最大,應該先改善此服務構面。儘管機場(公司)經營單位以旅客意見作為機場改善方針,努力提升機場服務品質,但受到管理單位的政策及現行權責劃分等因素影響,其機場服務改善往往有限並未彰顯出成效。機場經營者之管理策略應以旅客的角度來檢視其改善方向及順序,而非受機場 (民航局) 政策因素而決定,其改善方式應貼近旅客的期待與需求,而非受到機場管理單位的政策所主導。未來機場經營單位應提供良好的溝通管道,適時的宣傳及公告機場未來規劃及正在實行的改善計畫,將有助於縮減旅客與機場單位的服務品質缺口,進而提升機場整體服務品質滿意度。
    Airport Service Quality research are most exploring customer performance, less to discuss the service quality perception gaps between Service provider and consumer. To improve the overall airport service quality satisfaction effectively, this study based on PZB Service Quality Gap model, publishing and fill general and expert questionnaires for exploring the service quality gaps among airport managers, operators and traveler, to improve the overall airport service quality satisfaction effectively.
    First, applying Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Important- Performance Analysis (IPA) to customer satisfaction questionnaires; in the past, people use general quantity statistics to investigate customer performance, but it is hard to recognize relationship and influence of airport service items among and made airport managers can’t use this result in practice operation.
    PLS can be constructed with the use from passenger service quality model and find out the extent of passenger consider the size of the dimensions weight and criteria relationship, which can use to improve the quality of passenger service with the order. Furthermore, IPA analysis can describe the passenger perceived satisfaction and importance to a two- dimensional network plotting quadrant diagram, showing a passenger service standards whish should priorities for improvement. Secondly, in order to understand the airport managers (Civil Aeronautics Administration, CAA) and airport operators (Taoyuan Airport Corporation) perception in the airport service quality, applying DEMATEL- based ANP (DANP) to the expert questionnaires, discovering the correlation interaction and causal relationship between the criteria. Finally, integrated the expert interviews and passenger quantitative questionnaires, compared each other travelers, airport managers and operators different and identify causes of airport service quality gaps.
    The results show that airport service quality gaps existed on among passenger, airport manager and operators. Customers consider the airport services criteria as “Disable facilities”, “Store / Restaurant Prices” and “Store / Restaurant Options” need to improve airport immediately. Airport Corporation operators and CAA managers all agreed that “Terminal route planning” as the key impact of airport service quality standards; especially, transportation of airport service quality dimension is largest weight in airport non-control area. It is also effect huge in whole airport service quality, should be improved in the first time immediately. Although the airport corporation try to improve service quality from customer view of point, but the impact of policy by management unit and current division of responsibilities other factors, that limited to improve airport service didn’t demonstrate tangible results.
    Airport operators should to improve management strategy in passenger view of point order, rather than determined by CAA policy, it should be more closer to passenger expectation s and needs. In the future, airport operation units should provide good communication channels, timely publicity and announcements for future planning and airport improvement planning world be implement. It will help to reduce the service quality gaps between passengers and airport managers, thus enhance the overall airport service quality satisfaction.
    Appears in Collections:[運輸管理學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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