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|Other Titles: ||The influences of social comparison on intertemporal consumption and lifetime happiness|
|Authors: ||高照傑;Kao, Chao-Chieh|
|Keywords: ||社會比較;所得不均;跨期消費;Social comparison;Income inequality;intertemporal consumption|
|Issue Date: ||2015-05-01 16:10:55 (UTC+8)|
|Abstract: || 本研究以傳統經濟學的跨期消費模型為基礎，加入社會比較的動機，探討個體的決策及快樂。給定所得分配，其均等程度透過社會比較的預期苦樂感受，影響個體的儲蓄與未來的所得，進而產生苦樂體驗。所得分配不均究竟讓人快樂或痛苦，取決於與社會比較攸關的因素，包括社會標準、比較對象與態度係數等，以及對不同動機的重視程度與時間偏好。 |
重要結論如下：首先，面對跨期決策，一般人除了考量時間偏好因素外，也會考慮人際比較中他人看待自己的態度。其最適儲蓄決策分為三大類型：(1) 完全不儲蓄 (耐心差、樂於低社會地位)、 (2) 完全儲蓄 (較有耐心、樂於高社會地位)、與 (3) 部分儲蓄 (耐心與社會地位在決策時互相牴觸)。其次，所得分配不均度改變對快樂的影響，隨儲蓄決策類型而有不同。以均等分配為例，在其他條件不變下，一旦所得分配之離散程度提高，將使相同儲蓄差距下的人數減少。對此，一個完全儲蓄的個體所擁有的社會性快樂，將隨著所受的敬重減少而減低總合快樂感受。相對而言，一個部分儲蓄的個體所擁有的社會性快樂，將隨著所受的負向態度減少而減低總合痛苦的幅度。總括來說，若個體在社會比較上所感受的態度為正向的，則個體不希望離散程度增加 (所得不均度提升) 。反之，對於從社會比較感受到負向態度的個體，則希望分配離散程度增加。
This research is based on the traditional economic model of intertemporal consumption, and investigates an individual’s decision and happiness with the motivation of social comparison. The income distribution and its equality which affect the savings and future income of an individual through the expected feelings of pain and happiness of social comparison thus produce the experience of pain and happiness. Whether the inequality of income distribution makes people painful or happy depends on the factors of social comparison, including the standard of society, the comparison of objects, and the coefficients of attitude, as well as the emphases of different motives and time preference.
The important conclusions are: First, faced with the intertemporal consumption people think about not only the time preference but also others’ attitudes toward themselves in the interpersonal comparison. The optimal decisions of savings can be categorized in the following three types: (1) No savingst (one who is less patient, and enjoys to be in the low social class) (2) Complete savings (one who has more patience, and enjoys to be in the high social class) (3) Partial savings (one’s patience and social position would be contradict when making the decision). Second, the effect of a change in the inequality of income distribution on happiness will vary with the different decisions of savings. For example, in the case of a uniform distribution, other things being equal, if the dispersion of distribution rises, then the number of people within the same interval of savings will decrease. Therefore, the social happiness an individual with complete savings has will decrease as the feelings of being respected reduce. On the contrary, the social happiness an individual with partial savings has will increase as the negative attitude reduces. All in all, if an individual feels the attitude positive in the social comparison, his happiness is negatively correlated with the dispersion of distribution. Conversely, those individuals who feel the attitude more negative, their happiness is positively with the dispersion of distribution .
|Appears in Collections:||[Graduate Institute & Department of Economics] Thesis|
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