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    Title: 義大利選舉制度與政黨政治之研究(2001-2013年)
    Other Titles: A study on the electoral system and party politics in Italy (2001-2013)
    Authors: 徐偉傑;Hsu, Wei-Chieh
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶;Kuo, Chiu-Ching
    Keywords: 義大利;選舉制度;政黨政治;選制改革;杜瓦傑;electoral system;Party Politics;Italian;Electoral Reform;Duverger's Law;Sitema Elettorale;Partiti Politici;Riforma Elettorale;Legge di Duverger
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-01 13:42:21 (UTC+8)
    Abstract:   義大利國內政局更迭頻繁,歷屆政府往往才剛上軌道不久就遭倒閣,造成前後任政府政策上的不連貫,進入21世紀後,義大利的政壇生態更與上個世紀大大不同,透過近年來義大利政壇的發展,進行概括性的探討與介紹,同時結合政治文化、新舊選舉制度的比較及大選的結果的評析,討論義大利近年來政局的走向與發展,找出義大利政府更迭不斷的原因,並驗證杜瓦傑的理論對於義大利政局的適用性;最後希望透過研究所得到的結果,能找出義大利的政黨政治的根本問題所在,提出具體解決方式,並希望作出政局未來動向的可能預測,希望能夠一窺這十多年間,義大利國內政治上的發展情勢,以及國際情勢對於義大利政黨政治的影響。
      本文將主要分為5個部分:
    1. 首先會從義大利共和國憲法角度出發,分別探討法源基礎、政治制度相關之條文以及憲法所賦予議會的職權,然後討論義大利參、眾兩院的選舉方式及現行議會選舉法與特色;
    2. 其次從義大利的政治文化切入,觀察義大利政治文化的特色,以及其對於政黨政治的表現,隨後探討完美兩院制的背景並配合政治學的角度來觀察選舉制度與政黨制度的相互關係,筆者將會帶入杜瓦傑理論及薩托利的政黨分類;
    3. 接著從當今義大利政壇的主要政黨發展的背景,進入並觀察2013年大選後的政黨制度,以及21世紀義大利議會的選舉制度變革,並分析現行選舉制度與舊制的不同;
    4. 透過近年政黨數量的變化,觀察政壇勢力的此消彼長,同時會接續薩托利的七分法,找出並驗證當今義大利的政黨制,然後探討杜瓦傑理論在21世紀義大利政壇的適用性;
    5. 最後分析2001年以後的近4次議會選舉的結果,搭配當時的重要議題,觀察政黨間彼此競逐的角力,希望從中尋找出脈絡,以期能夠預測未來可能的發展,並以選舉法可能的修改方向來做總結。
    Italy is famous for its complicate politics, and almost every government fails to pass their no-confidence vote in the parliament every year, which, in this circumstance, makes the cabinet reshuffle occur persistently. Since 21st century, the politics in Italy has become more different than before, so this study is aimed to figure out the reason why the cabinet reshuffle occurs so frequently, to confirm if the Duverger’s Law is suitable for the political reality in Italy and to provide a solution for the complex Italian party politics.
    To do so, we must focus on the Italian political development, its political culture, 2 different electoral systems and the results of the latest elections and therefore thesis is divided in 5 parts:
    1. Starting from the Italian constitution, we will discuss the political system, the parliament and the current election law and its features,
    2. By focusing on the political culture, the party politics, the perfect bicameralism and its background, we would like the find out the features from the political system and party politics in Italy,
    3. Through the latest 2 electoral reforms in Italy, we will analyze the difference between the 1993 election law and the 2005 election law in this section,
    4. Then with the calculate the quantities of the parties in the recent parliaments, we will observe the growth and decline between the parties to find which the current party system is in Italy and whether the Duverger’s Law is suitable for the political reality,
    5. Finally we hope to predict the possibilities for the political development by analyzing the results from the latest elections after 2001 and conclude this thesis with some possible modifications for the election law.
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