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    Title: 全球化角度檢視歐洲航空公司競爭策略 : 以英法德為例
    Other Titles: Competitive strategies of European airlines from the perspective of globalization : a case study of England, France, and Germany
    Authors: 黃詩茵;Huang, Shih-Yin
    Contributors: 淡江大學歐洲研究所碩士班
    郭秋慶
    Keywords: 歐洲聯盟;全球化;航空市場;策略聯盟;競爭策略;合併併購;European Union;Airline market;Globalisation;strategic alliance;Competitive Strategies
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-01 13:42:16 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 全球化(Globalisation)是現在耳熟能詳的名詞,不過全球化的推動除了經濟快速成長之外,航空運輸產業的進步,是加速全球化一個不可或缺的因素之一。
    航空產業是一個高度競爭且具有進入障礙的產業。早期除了國家航空公司之外,並不開放私人企業進入航空公司營運市場。1978年,美國率先開放「內部」航空公司限制,開放私人企業進入市場,自此之後,航點、航班、航空公司數量開始增加,為航空運輸產業往開放市場邁進開啟了新的一頁。美國並且更進一步地在1997年簽訂了歐美開放天空協議;跨大西洋市場開放之後,除了美國航空公司以外,歐洲航空公司同時也進入了美國的航空市場,新協議更進一步取消航班數量以及票價等方面的限制。為了因應這股趨勢,航空公司陸續集結其它航空公司成立航空策略聯盟(airline alliance),以增加經濟效益、降低營運成本,減少自身所需承擔之風險,獲取更大的利益、拓展市場、減少自身所需承擔風險、以及成本費用等等。
    歐洲聯盟自成立以來,皆以消除差異、統一內部市場為目標,航空運輸市場也不例外,再加上全球化的競爭環境之下以及歐美開放天空協議的影響,歐洲航空公司的競爭策略除了策略聯盟以外也開始有了不同的面貌,最顯著的就是合併併購。歐洲航空公司最有名的合併案便是2005年法國航空公司(Air France)與荷蘭皇家航空公司(KLM Royal Dutch Airline)合併一案。雙方在合併之後,兩家航空公司因為航空基地不同,荷蘭航空在北歐佔有優勢,而法航則是針對南歐市場。雙方合併之後,南北市場的互補反而造就了更大的經營優勢。合併併購可以使成本下降、市佔率增加並且軟硬體同時升級,增加顧客忠誠度,且自2007年以來的金融風暴,再加上廉價航空公司的成立以及低價促銷策略、原油價格上漲等等原因,,使得航空公司在其競爭策略上必須多方面著手,藉以達到降低成本、提高利潤目的。
    就航空公司營運層面的競爭而言,歐美開放天空後,能夠營運泛大西洋航線的航空公司變多,不再只是屈指可數的主要航空公司;再加上歐盟解除管制、防止國家干預,創造有利且多元的投資環境。在朝著新自由主義的方向前進的同時,檢視英國、德國、以及法國的航空公司在面對如此高度競爭的環境之下,如何去因應。
    本論文以全球化的角度出發,並以歐美開放天空協議作為討論航空競爭策略的背景,透過全球化的角度討論歐美航空市場解除管制後,歐洲航空運輸市場的競爭策略以及英國、德國以及法國航空公司的實際營運情形。
    Nowadays, globalization has become a familiar word. In addition to the growth of a fast-paced global economy, one of the largest factors in globalization is the air transport industry and it is an indispensable factor in accelerating globalization today.
    The air transport industry is a highly competitive industry muddled with barriers to entry. In the early stages of the air transportation industry, aside from government-run air transport industries the market for private air transport corporations was greatly restricted. It was not until 1978, when American President Jimmy Carter signed the “Airline Deregulation Act”, which removed some of the governmental control of United States inner aviation market. Furthermore, America signed the EU-US “Open Skies Agreement” in 1997 to give even more rights to private sectors. After that, the number of airline companies and scheduled flights rapidly increased. In order to react this trend, the airline companies started to form airline alliances to minimize costs and company risks while at the same time maximizing profits, market share and customer loyalty.
    Since the formation of the European Union on, it has focused on eliminating differences and unifying the European marketplace. The European air transport markets are no different. Under this competitive environment, coupled with the impact of the EU-US “Open Air Agreement”, European airline companies not only needed to form alliances, but also faced entirely different situations all together. The most obvious of these are merger acquisitions. The most famous example of a European airline merger was in 2005, when Air France and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines merged becoming “Air France-KLM”. The merger worked well because the two airline’s target markets were different; KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was based in Northern Europe while Air France was based in the south. Since the merger, Air France-KLM has become one of the leading European airlines, while each airline has retained its individual identity, trade name and brand. The three core businesses are passenger transport, cargo and engineering/maintenance. Both airlines run their own operations from their respective hub airports (Charles de Gaulle, Paris and Schiphol, Amsterdam) and their hubs make the aviation whole. Due to the financial crisis and the oil prices rising in recent years, there are other strategies for airline companies to deal with this critical situation, such as low-cost carriers and the airline code-sharing strategy. The low-cost carrier in the European Union began running in 1985 under the name Ryanair. Today, Ryanair has become the biggest low-cost airline in the EU, with around 4,325 million Euro revenue in 2012. Moreover, the airline code-sharing strategy is also frequently used in European airline market as it raises the number of passengers and lowers the cost of service and maintenance.
    Under the EU-US Open Skies Agreement, the market is freed and national carriers can run the trans-atlantics as well as private carriers. In addition, the deregulation of the European aviation market prevented the intervention by governments in the European Union which created a beneficial and diverse investment circumstance. In the era of neoliberalism, the airline business has more different strategies to face these harsh situations. This thesis will focus on the airline business strategies exercised in cases among England, Germany and France.
    Appears in Collections:[歐洲研究所] 學位論文

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