|题名: ||全球化角度檢視歐洲航空公司競爭策略 : 以英法德為例|
|其它题名: ||Competitive strategies of European airlines from the perspective of globalization : a case study of England, France, and Germany|
|作者: ||黃詩茵;Huang, Shih-Yin|
|关键词: ||歐洲聯盟;全球化;航空市場;策略聯盟;競爭策略;合併併購;European Union;Airline market;Globalisation;strategic alliance;Competitive Strategies|
|上传时间: ||2015-05-01 13:42:16 (UTC+8)|
歐洲聯盟自成立以來，皆以消除差異、統一內部市場為目標，航空運輸市場也不例外，再加上全球化的競爭環境之下以及歐美開放天空協議的影響，歐洲航空公司的競爭策略除了策略聯盟以外也開始有了不同的面貌，最顯著的就是合併併購。歐洲航空公司最有名的合併案便是2005年法國航空公司(Air France)與荷蘭皇家航空公司(KLM Royal Dutch Airline)合併一案。雙方在合併之後，兩家航空公司因為航空基地不同，荷蘭航空在北歐佔有優勢，而法航則是針對南歐市場。雙方合併之後，南北市場的互補反而造就了更大的經營優勢。合併併購可以使成本下降、市佔率增加並且軟硬體同時升級，增加顧客忠誠度，且自2007年以來的金融風暴，再加上廉價航空公司的成立以及低價促銷策略、原油價格上漲等等原因，，使得航空公司在其競爭策略上必須多方面著手，藉以達到降低成本、提高利潤目的。
Nowadays, globalization has become a familiar word. In addition to the growth of a fast-paced global economy, one of the largest factors in globalization is the air transport industry and it is an indispensable factor in accelerating globalization today.
The air transport industry is a highly competitive industry muddled with barriers to entry. In the early stages of the air transportation industry, aside from government-run air transport industries the market for private air transport corporations was greatly restricted. It was not until 1978, when American President Jimmy Carter signed the “Airline Deregulation Act”, which removed some of the governmental control of United States inner aviation market. Furthermore, America signed the EU-US “Open Skies Agreement” in 1997 to give even more rights to private sectors. After that, the number of airline companies and scheduled flights rapidly increased. In order to react this trend, the airline companies started to form airline alliances to minimize costs and company risks while at the same time maximizing profits, market share and customer loyalty.
Since the formation of the European Union on, it has focused on eliminating differences and unifying the European marketplace. The European air transport markets are no different. Under this competitive environment, coupled with the impact of the EU-US “Open Air Agreement”, European airline companies not only needed to form alliances, but also faced entirely different situations all together. The most obvious of these are merger acquisitions. The most famous example of a European airline merger was in 2005, when Air France and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines merged becoming “Air France-KLM”. The merger worked well because the two airline’s target markets were different; KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was based in Northern Europe while Air France was based in the south. Since the merger, Air France-KLM has become one of the leading European airlines, while each airline has retained its individual identity, trade name and brand. The three core businesses are passenger transport, cargo and engineering/maintenance. Both airlines run their own operations from their respective hub airports (Charles de Gaulle, Paris and Schiphol, Amsterdam) and their hubs make the aviation whole. Due to the financial crisis and the oil prices rising in recent years, there are other strategies for airline companies to deal with this critical situation, such as low-cost carriers and the airline code-sharing strategy. The low-cost carrier in the European Union began running in 1985 under the name Ryanair. Today, Ryanair has become the biggest low-cost airline in the EU, with around 4,325 million Euro revenue in 2012. Moreover, the airline code-sharing strategy is also frequently used in European airline market as it raises the number of passengers and lowers the cost of service and maintenance.
Under the EU-US Open Skies Agreement, the market is freed and national carriers can run the trans-atlantics as well as private carriers. In addition, the deregulation of the European aviation market prevented the intervention by governments in the European Union which created a beneficial and diverse investment circumstance. In the era of neoliberalism, the airline business has more different strategies to face these harsh situations. This thesis will focus on the airline business strategies exercised in cases among England, Germany and France.