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    Title: 中國農村自治之研究
    Other Titles: Study of China's self-governance in rural areas
    Authors: 桂建華;Kuei, Chien-Hua
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    張五岳;Chang, Wu-Ueh
    Keywords: 人民公社;民主化;農村自治;自治政策;村委會;Villagers;committee;CCP;election;Democratic
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-01 13:41:32 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中國自古以來就是一個以農立國的國家,它人口眾多,人均耕地面積不足,且自然資源有限,加上開放政策發展經濟關係更加快工業化污染環境,進而濫墾山林,破壞劣化水土,影響到農村根本生存的條件,在此時中共要繼續維持改革的動能,農村的穩定將是GDP高度成長之關鍵。
    本文以農村自治之過程變化為主軸,並比較受經濟開放影響之農村及較落後農村對自治政策之反應。坦白說,農村自治在人民公社崩潰之時,確實發生了它的正面作用,它解決了公社遺留之種種弊端,改善了農民生活水平,提升了參政的教育成果,然而新的制度組織必然有不同管理規定,文中也涉及這規定帶來摩擦和衝突,現在民選的村主任、村委會對上以往的領導黨支書記,從領導變協商,甚至反客為主。還有在實施農村自治時,中共中央又如何維持政治穩定情況下進行整個國家經濟改革,也是探討的重要項目。
    「農村自治政策」實施三十餘年雖說落實,其實尚言之過早,民主的意義與西方之民主相差甚遠,然而從歷史角度觀察,「農村自治政策」的推動在大陸進行脫胎換骨經濟開放政策中,確定扮演了重要穩定的角色,雖然過程走的戰戰兢兢,但也平安過來了。有些地區,由於開放經濟得宜致富,甚至黨的影響力還有強化的情形。事實上所謂「民主化」之影響,仍限於少數地區,多數實施農村自治的地區,管理權仍牢牢的被黨繼續掌握著。事實上;「農村自治政策」是共產社會的一種因應時代變革下的產物,且它畢竟含有自由選舉民主的基因,當有一天在各種條件符合情況下,觸動了那基固,其帶動之思想轉化,未必不會在這古老國家激發出新的民主光芒。
    The main content of this thesis is researching about the background, procession, results, and prospects in the future of the self-govern of villager in China Mainland. After 1980, Chinese Communist Party started open-door economic, and headed to modernized line. In order to resolve a series of politics, economics and social unrest in villages, it set up villagers committee.
    Villagers’ committee established in the time that People’s commune collapsed. It also fixed plenty of chaos left by People’s commune. Plus, its function fits demand of humanity, filled up the empty of politics in village, and solved CCP’s urgent problem.
    For the sack of strengthening village’s managing, CCP adopted organic law of the villagers committeesin the eleventh National People''s Congressesin 2010. According to the constitutionin article 111, villagers committee would be the grassroots self-governing organization in villages. It would be the only one organization that had direct election and equal suffrage. CCP had mix feelings about this organization. On
    the one side, CCP loves it, because it can solve many grassroots’ difficulties and decrease many problems. On the contrary, CCP is afraid of it owing to the direct election. CCP is scared to lose control on it. Thus, CCP has contradictory attitude about this organization.
    Whether this democratic production under the communist system will seize the opportunity of open-door economic to continue to develop in the future or expand from bottom to top? Will town and county have democratic election for self-govern? I believe that researchers who are interested in self-govern of villager would have similar point of view.
    Observing practically from the election of villagers’ committee, village will need a quite long time to complete democratic autonomy. I can neither deny current autonomy status, nor negate attribution from villagers’ committee to village. From the angle of history to observe good institution is always get one first and chase better quality after then. After all, it can’t beperfect at the early democratic stage. We just need to consistently push it to approve the law and make it more fit demand from village. I believe that will eventually blossom into the democracy in the future.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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