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    Title: 日本における高齢者学習の研究
    Other Titles: A study of lifelong learning of the elderly in Japan
    Authors: 葉美娥;Yeh, Meio
    Contributors: 淡江大學日本語文學系碩士班
    闕百華;Chueh, Pai-hua
    Keywords: 高齡者;學ぶ場;高齡者教育;社會教育;生涯教育;生涯學習;團塊世代;高齡者學習;學習場所;The Elderly;Elderly Education;social education;Lifetime Education;lifelong learning;Baby Boomers;Elderly Learning;Learning Venues
    Date: 2014
    Issue Date: 2015-05-01 13:41:13 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 日本自1949「社會教育法」制定後,於1954年才開始設立「樂生學園」的老人教室,從此樹立了高齡者教育的典範。爾後透過1963年制定的「老人福祉法」,1965年聯合國教育科學文化組織(U.N.E.S.C.O)所倡導「生涯教育」,及1973年召開的「老人對策室」會議等過程之後,日本的高齡者教育的基礎架構已被形成。日本的厚生省和文部省也積極的輔導「高齡者教室」及「高齡者人才活用事業」的推行,目的就是希望能藉由高齡者學習的活動,可以提升其生活品質,維持其社會活力及尋求生存意義。

    1985年,聯合國教育科學文化組織(U.N.E.S.C.O)提倡「學習者宣言」理念,期待能以「生涯學習」來創造智力及解決社會問題。日本也隨即在1990年制定「生涯學習振興法」,自此「生涯教育」的名詞被「生涯學習」所取代,其主要的教育對象也涵蓋了所有年齡層。日本也因為高齡率漸昇之故,「社會教育的使用者付費」取代了以往政府或地方的教育補助的建言也被提出。

    日本現在已經由「高齡社會」邁入「超高齡社會」,「團塊世代」的前期高齡者更是被期待「從依賴撫養轉向自立」‧「共存和預防被照顧」‧「異世代交流」‧「地方社會的活性化」‧「創造生存意義」。於是日本政府在全國各區域都設有「公民館」‧「文化中心」‧「銀髮人才中心」‧「高齡者大學」等等的學習場所,提供高齡者的多元學習。

    本研究結果發現,目前日本高齡者學習主要是在提昇生活品質和能夠繼續被雇用。另外,高齡者學習目前面臨的課題可歸納如下○1高齡者學習需求的對應問題。○2同區域不同學習教室卻相同授課內容問題。○3高齡者學習課程結束後的人才活用問題。○4高齡者自立的意識改革問題。○5高階行政的遠見可否下達到地方的實踐問題。
    After the enactment of “Social Education Laws” in 1949, Japan established an elderly classroom called “Lakusei Gakuenn” in 1954, which made Japan an exemplary model in elderly education. The subsequent “Elderly Welfare Laws” enacted in 1963, U.N.E.S.C.O’s “Lifelong Learning” initiatives in 1965, and “Strategy for Elderly” advocacy series in 1973 served the building blocks for Japan’s elderly education programs. Furthermore, Japan’s Ministries of Health and Education have been proponents of “elderly classrooms” and “elderly talent cultivation programs.” These programs were launched with to improve living standards, increase social vitality, and reinforce the purpose of life amongst the elderly population.
    In 1985, U.N.E.S.C.O promoted the “Learner’s Declaration” concept. The concept used “lifelong education” as a way to improve education standards and solve societal issues. In 1990, Japan enacted “Lifelong Learning Promotion Laws.” Since then, “lifelong education” was re-coined “lifelong learning” and encompassed a wider age group. As Japan experienced a growth in the elderly population, the concept of non-subsidized elderly education was suggested.
    Japan has seen its elderly society transition into a “super-elderly” society. Given such a transition, the elderly population from the “Baby Boomers” generation is encouraged to be more independent, to co-exist with one another, to interact with the younger generation, to revitalize the local communities, and to rediscover the purposes of their lives. Learning venues such as citizen centers, cultural centers, elderly talent centers , and elderly universities were installed to provide diverse learning opportunities for elderly.
    This study found that the main objectives of elderly learning in Japan are to improve standards of living and to ensure continued employment. Challenges that elderly learning faces today are 1) Demand for elderly education; 2) Oversupply of similar programs in the same region; 3) Talent placement post-elderly learning programs; 4) Sense of independence amongst elders; 5) Execution of long term vision in regional areas.
    Appears in Collections:[日本語文學系暨研究所 ] 學位論文

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