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    Title: 生物可分解聚乳酸複合材料系統的製備及其放線菌分解動力模型
    Other Titles: Preparation of Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid) Composite Systems and Their Degradation Models by Streptomyces Sp.
    Authors: 董崇民
    Contributors: 淡江大學化學工程與材料工程學系
    Keywords: 生物可分解性;聚乳酸;黏土;聚羥基烷酯;幾丁質;幾丁聚醣;放線菌;biodegradability;poly(lactic acid);clay;polyhydroxyalkanoate;chitin;chitosan;Streptomyces sp
    Date: 2012-08
    Issue Date: 2015-04-27 16:38:54 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 目前全世界生物可分解塑膠市場佔有率以聚乳酸(PLA)最高,大約占了40%的市場,多數使用在食品容器,PLA將逐漸取代性質相近之塑膠,尤其是PS和PET。雖然聚乳酸擁有一些不錯的特性及生物可分解性,不過影響其進一步取代泛用塑膠包裝材料的障礙為其生產成本及耐熱性質,另外聚乳酸的韌性不足,無法作為耐衝擊或緩衝材,因此聚乳酸的改質就成為學術界及工業界的熱門研究題目。本計畫將針對不同聚乳酸塑膠改質系統進行研究,期能改善其性質,不過最重要的是改質後的聚乳酸必須仍維持其生物可分解性質。改質方法是摻合其他天然材料,依其系統分為(1)有機/無機奈米複合材料系統(聚乳酸/無機黏土);(2)有機/有機聚酯高分子摻合物系統(聚乳酸/聚羥基烷酯);(3)合成聚酯/天然多醣類高分子混成系統(聚乳酸/幾丁質或幾丁聚醣),除了研究改質配方、混練條件、複合材料的結構與形態、熱性質與機械性質外,我們將利用篩選自台灣溫泉附近的本土放線菌(Streptomyces sp.)進行分解測試,以了解改質聚乳酸材料的生物可分解性,同時建立細菌分解動力模型。此計畫將分成三年研究: 第一年的研究主題是聚乳酸/奈米黏土複合材料的製備及其細菌分解行為: (1)自行選用界面活性劑以進行黏土插層;(2)製備馬來酸酐接枝聚乳酸;(3)建立最適混練條件;(4)觀察黏土的分散程度(插層/脫層)及複合材料的形態;(5)結晶動力學研究;(6)測量熱裂解溫度及裂解活化能;(7)測量機械性質並建立數學分析模型;(8)水氣阻隔性;(9)建立本土放線菌最適培養條件以進行細菌分解測試,並建立分解動力模型。 第二年的研究主題是聚乳酸/聚羥基烷酯摻合物的製備及其細菌分解行為: (1)以嗜鹽菌發酵生產聚羥基烷酯(PHA);(2)合成PLA-b-PHA共聚物作為相容劑;(3)建立最適混練條件;(4)進行相容性分析及結晶動力學研究;(5)測量熱裂解溫度及裂解活化能;(6)測量機械性質並建立數學分析模型;(7)水氣阻隔性;(8)建立本土放線菌最適培養條件以進行細菌分解測試,並建立分解動力模型。 第三年的研究主題是聚乳酸/幾丁質(幾丁聚醣)混成材料的製備及其細菌分解行為: (1)幾丁質鬚晶(whisker)的製備;(2)製備不同去乙醯度及不同分子量的幾丁聚醣;(3)製備烷基化幾丁聚醣;(4)建立最適混練條件;(5)分析結晶構造及材料的形態;(6)進行相容性分析及結晶動力學研究;(7)測量熱裂解溫度及裂解活化能;(8)測量機械性質並建立數學分析模型;(9)水氣阻隔性;(10)建立本土放線菌最適培養條件以進行細菌分解測試,並建立分解動力模型。
    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is the most-used biodegradable plastic in the market, about 40% of all biodegradable plastics produced in the world. Most PLA has been fabricated for the food containers and trays, and it has gradually replaced the plastics with similar properties, especially the PS and PET. Though PLA has some superior properties, in addition to its biodegradability, it suffers from low thermal resistance and high cost that would prevent its further applications and competition with the commodity plastics. Furthermore, due to its low impact resistance, PLA is still limited to be used as the impact-resistance materials. Consequently, modification of PLA for improving its properties has attracted a great deal of interest not only in industries but also in academic. The purpose of this project is thus to modify PLA by blending some other natural materials, yet, most importantly, the biodegradability of the modified PLA materials needs to be reserved. According to the material to be blended into the PLA, three systems are classified: (1) organic/inorganic composite system (PLA/clay); (2) organic/organic polyester blend (PLA/PHA); (3) synthetic/natural polymer hybrid system (PLA/chitin or chitosan). Studies of formula, compounding conditions, structure and morphology, thermal and mechanical properties will be conducted in this project. Furthermore, it has been found that some Streptomyces sp. cultivated from the near around of hot springs in Taiwan are able to degrade the PLA plastic. Therefore, we also will test the biodegradability of these PLA composite systems by culturing them with Streptomyces sp. under certain conditions. From which, we will establish bacterial degradation models of these PLA composite systems. Three years are scheduled to accomplish this project: In the first year, the main topic is “preparation and bacterial degradation behavior of PLA/nano-clay composites” with the following objectives: (1) intercalation/exfoliation of clay by some selected modified surfactants; (2) synthesis of maleiated PLA compatibilizer; (3) search for the optimum compounding conditions; (4) extent of intercalation/exfoliation and morphology of PLA/clay composites by XRD and TEM; (5) studies on crystallization kinetics by POM and DSC; (6) determination of thermal degradation temperature and activation energy for degradation; (7) measurement of mechanical properties and mathematical analysis; (8) water vapor resistance; (9) biodegradability of the PLA/clay composites by Streptomyces sp. and the establishment of bacterial degradation model. In the second year, the main topic is “preparation and bacterial degradation behavior of PLA/PHA blends” with the following objectives: (1) production of PHA by fermentation of Haloferax mediterranei; (2) synthesis of PLA-b-PHA block copolymer as compatibilizer; (3) search for the optimum compounding conditions; (4) studies on miscibility and crystallization kinetics of PLA/PHA blends by POM and DSC; (5) determination of thermal degradation temperature and activation energy for degradation; (6) measurement of mechanical properties and mathematical analysis; (7) water vapor resistance; (8) biodegradability of the PLA/PHA blends by Streptomyces sp. and the establishment of bacterial degradation model. In the third year, the main topic is “preparation and bacterial degradation behavior of PLA/chitin(chitosan) hybrids” with the following objectives: (1) preparation of chitin whiskers; (2) preparation of chitosan with different degrees of deactylation and different molecular weights; (3) synthesis of alkyl chitosan, (4) search for the optimum compounding conditions; (5) analysis of crystalline structure and morphology; (6) studies on miscibility and crystallization kinetics of PLA/chitin(chitosan) hybrids; (7) determination of thermal degradation temperature and activation energy for degradation; (8) measurement of mechanical properties and mathematical analysis; (9) water vapor resistance; (10) biodegradability of the PLA/chitin(chitosan) hybrids by Streptomyces sp. and the establishment of bacterial degradation model.
    Appears in Collections:[化學工程與材料工程學系暨研究所] 研究報告

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